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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to ___________

Commission file number 001-10960
https://cdn.kscope.io/e38dbf957c2b199cb0d6791c85f52a68-fcfslogo.jpg

FIRSTCASH HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware87-3920732
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

1600 West 7th Street, Fort Worth, Texas 76102
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

(817) 335-1100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareFCFSThe Nasdaq Stock Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes    No
                                                            
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes    No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.    

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes    No

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $3,006,000,000 based on the closing price as reported on the Nasdaq Stock Market.
        
As of January 31, 2024, there were 45,107,912 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.




FIRSTCASH HOLDINGS, INC.
FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS



CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS

Forward-Looking Information

This annual report contains forward-looking statements about the business, financial condition, outlook and prospects of FirstCash Holdings, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries (together, the “Company”). Forward-looking statements, as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “projects,” “expects,” “may,” “estimates,” “should,” “plans,” “targets,” “intends,” “could,” “would,” “anticipates,” “potential,” “confident,” “optimistic” or the negative thereof, or other variations thereon, or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy, objectives, estimates, guidance, expectations, outlook and future plans. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by the fact these statements do not relate strictly to historical or current matters. Rather, forward-looking statements relate to anticipated or expected events, activities, trends or results. Because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, these statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties.

While the Company believes the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements are reasonable, there can be no assurances such expectations will prove to be accurate. Security holders are cautioned that such forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Certain factors may cause results to differ materially from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements made in this annual report. Such factors and risks may include, without limitation, risks related to the extensive regulatory environment in which the Company operates; risks associated with the legal and regulatory proceedings that the Company is a party to, or may become a party to in the future, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) lawsuit filed against the Company; risks related to the Company’s acquisitions, including the failure of the Company’s acquisitions to deliver the estimated value and benefits expected by the Company and the ability of the Company to continue to identify and consummate acquisitions on favorable terms; potential changes in consumer behavior and shopping patterns which could impact demand for the Company’s pawn loan, retail, lease-to-own (“LTO”) and retail finance products, including those changes resulting from shifts in the general economic conditions; labor shortages and increased labor costs; a deterioration in the economic conditions in the United States and Latin America, including as a result of inflation and rising interest rates, which potentially could have an impact on discretionary consumer spending and demand for the Company’s products; currency fluctuations, primarily involving the Mexican peso; competition the Company faces from other retailers and providers of retail payment solutions; the ability of the Company to successfully execute on its business strategies; and other risks discussed and described in Part I, Item IA, “Risk Factors” hereof, and other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Many of these risks and uncertainties are beyond the ability of the Company to control, nor can the Company predict, in many cases, all of the risks and uncertainties that could cause its actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this annual report speak only as of the date of this annual report, and the Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to report any updates or revisions to any such statement to reflect any change in the Company’s expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except as required by law.




PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

FirstCash Holdings, Inc., along with its wholly owned subsidiaries (together, the “Company”), is the leading operator of pawn stores in the U.S. and Latin America and is also a leading provider of technology-driven, retail point-of-sale (“POS”) payment solutions focused on serving credit-constrained consumers in the U.S and Puerto Rico.

The Company operates two business lines, pawn operations and retail POS payment solutions, which are organized into three reportable segments. The U.S. pawn segment consists of pawn operations in 29 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, while the Latin America pawn segment consists of pawn operations in Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and El Salvador. The retail POS payment solutions segment consists of the operations of American First Finance, LLC (“AFF”) in all 50 states in the U.S., the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.

The Company’s primary line of business is the operation of retail pawn stores, also known as “pawnshops,” which focus on serving cash and credit-constrained consumers. As of December 31, 2023, the Company operated almost 3,000 pawnshops across its network. Pawn stores help customers meet small, short-term cash needs by providing non-recourse pawn loans and buying merchandise directly from customers. Personal property, such as jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods and musical instruments, is pledged and held as collateral for the pawn loans over the typical 30-day term of the loan. Pawn stores also generate retail sales primarily from the merchandise acquired through collateral forfeitures and over-the-counter purchases from customers. Net revenues (gross profit) from pawn operations comprised 82% of consolidated net revenues in 2023.

The Company’s retail POS payment solutions business line consists solely of the operations of AFF, which it acquired in 2021 (the “AFF Acquisition”). AFF focuses on LTO products and facilitating other retail financing payment options across a large network of traditional and e-commerce merchant partners. AFF’s retail partners provide consumer goods and services to their customers and use AFF’s LTO and retail finance solutions to facilitate payments on such transactions. As one of the largest omni-channel providers of “no credit required” payment options, AFF’s technology set provides consumers with seamless leasing and financing experiences in-store, online, in-cart and on mobile devices.

The accompanying audited consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 include the results of operations for AFF for the full respective period, while the comparable 2021 period includes the results of operations for AFF for the period December 17, 2021 to December 31, 2021, affecting the comparability of 2023 and 2022 amounts to 2021 amounts.

The Company’s principal executive offices are located at 1600 West 7th Street, Fort Worth, Texas 76102, and its telephone number is (817) 335-1100. The Company’s primary corporate website is www.firstcash.com.

Pawn Operations

Pawn stores are neighborhood-based retail locations that buy and sell pre-owned consumer products such as jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods and musical instruments. Pawn stores also provide a quick and convenient source of small, secured consumer loans, also known as pawn loans, to unbanked, under-banked and credit-constrained customers. Pawn loans are safe and affordable non-recourse loans for which the customer has no legal obligation to repay. The Company does not engage in post-default collection efforts, does not take legal actions against its customers for defaulted loans, does not ban its customers for nonpayment, nor does it report any negative credit information to credit reporting agencies, but rather relies only on the resale of the pawn collateral for recovery. Pawnshop customers are typically value-conscious consumers and/or borrowers who are not effectively or efficiently served by traditional lenders such as banks, credit unions, credit card providers or other small loan providers.

The pawn industry in the U.S. is well established, with the highest concentration of pawn stores located in states that have favorable customer demographics, high population growth and maintain regulations most conducive to profitable pawn operations. Generally, these states are located in the Southeast, Midwest, Southwest and Mountain West regions of the country, which is where the majority of the Company’s U.S. stores are located.


1



Historically, competitor pawn stores in Latin America have limited square footage and focus on providing loans collateralized by gold jewelry or small electronics. In contrast, a majority of the Company’s pawn stores opened in Latin America are larger format, full-service stores similar to the U.S. stores, which buy, sell and lend on a wide array of merchandise. Accordingly, competition in Latin America with the Company’s larger format, full-service pawn stores is more limited. A large percentage of the population in Mexico and other countries in Latin America is unbanked or under-banked with limited access to traditional consumer credit. The Company believes there is opportunity for further expansion in Mexico and other Latin American countries due to the large potential consumer base and limited competition from other large format, full-service pawn store operators.

Services Offered by the Company’s Pawn Operations

Pawn Merchandise Sales

The Company’s pawn merchandise sales are primarily retail sales to the general public from its pawn store locations. The items sold generally consist of pre-owned consumer products such as jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods and musical instruments. The Company also melts certain quantities of scrap jewelry and sells the gold, silver and diamonds in the commodity markets. Merchandise sales accounted for 48% of the Company’s consolidated revenue during 2023.

Merchandise inventory is acquired primarily through forfeited pawn loan collateral and, to a lesser extent, through purchases of used goods directly from the general public. The Company also acquires limited quantities of new or refurbished general merchandise inventories directly from wholesalers and manufacturers. Merchandise acquired by the Company through forfeited pawn loan collateral is carried in inventory at the amount of the related pawn loan, exclusive of any accrued service fees, and purchased inventory is carried at cost.

Retail customers can use cash or credit cards for retail purchases or can purchase merchandise on an interest-free “layaway” plan. Should the customer fail to make a required payment pursuant to a layaway plan, the item is returned to inventory and all or a portion of previous payments are typically forfeited to the Company. Deposits and interim payments from customers on layaway sales are recorded as deferred revenue and subsequently recorded as retail merchandise sales revenue when the merchandise is delivered to the customer upon receipt of final payment or when previous payments are forfeited to the Company. In addition, the Company offers a LTO option at its U.S. pawn stores through AFF (as further described below).

Retail sales are seasonally highest in the fourth quarter, associated with holiday shopping, and, to a lesser extent, in the first quarter, due to tax refund proceeds received by customers in the U.S.

Pawn Lending

The Company’s pawn store locations make pawn loans to customers in order to help them meet instant or short-term cash needs. All pawn loans are collateralized by personal property such as jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods, musical instruments and other items. The pledged collateral provides the only security to the Company for the repayment of the loan. The Company does not investigate the creditworthiness of the borrower, primarily relying instead on the marketability and expected sales value of pledged goods as a basis for the amount loaned. Pawn loans are non-recourse loans, and a customer does not have a legal obligation to repay a pawn loan. There is no collections process, and the decision to not repay the loan will not affect the customer’s credit score with any credit reporting agency and rarely affects their ability to obtain a subsequent pawn loan from the Company. The average amount of a pawn loan at December 31, 2023 was $258 in the U.S. and $95 in Latin America.

At the time a pawn loan transaction is entered into, an agreement or pawn contract, commonly referred to as a “pawn ticket,” is presented to the borrower for signature that includes, among other items, the borrower’s name and identification information, a description of the pledged goods, amount financed, pawn service fee, maturity date, total amount that must be paid to redeem the pledged goods on the maturity date and the fee charged expressed as an annual percentage rate.

The term of a pawn loan is typically 30 days plus an additional grace period of 14 to 90 days, depending on geographic markets and local or state regulations. Pawn loans may be either paid in full with accrued pawn loan fees and service charges or, where permitted by law, may be renewed or extended by the customer’s payment of accrued pawn loan fees and service charges. If a pawn loan is not repaid before the expiration of the grace period, the pawn collateral is forfeited to the Company and transferred to inventory at a value equal to the principal amount of the loan, exclusive of accrued service fees. Pledged property is held in a secured, non-public warehouse area of the pawn store for the term of the loan and the grace period, unless the loan is repaid earlier. The Company does not record pawn loan losses or charge-offs because the amount advanced becomes the carrying cost of the forfeited collateral that is to be recovered through the merchandise sales function described above.
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Pawn loan fees are typically calculated as a percentage of the pawn loan amount based on the size, duration and type of collateral of the pawn loan and generally range from 4% to 25% per month, as permitted by applicable law. As required by applicable law, the amounts of these charges are disclosed to the customer on the pawn ticket. Pawn loan fees accounted for 21% of the Company’s consolidated revenue during 2023.

The amount the Company is willing to finance for a pawn loan is primarily based on a percentage of the estimated retail value of the collateral. There are no minimum or maximum pawn loan to fair market value restrictions in connection with the Company’s lending activities. In order to estimate the value of the collateral, the Company utilizes its proprietary POS and loan management system to recall recent selling prices of similar merchandise in its own stores. The basis for the Company’s determination of the retail value also includes such sources as precious metals spot markets, catalogs, blue books, online auction sites and retailer advertisements. These sources, together with the employees’ inspection of the collateral along with their skills and experience in selling similar items of merchandise in particular stores, influence the determination of the estimated retail value of such items.

The Company typically experiences seasonal growth in its pawn loan balances in the third and fourth quarters preceded by lower balances in the first two quarters due to the typical repayment of pawn loans associated with statutory bonuses received by customers in the fourth quarter in Mexico and with tax refund proceeds typically received by customers in the first quarter in the U.S.

Pawn Business Strategy

The Company’s business strategy is to continue growing pawn revenues and income by opening new (“de novo”) retail pawn locations, acquiring existing pawn stores in strategic markets and increasing revenue and operating profits in existing stores. Over the last five years, 756 pawn stores have been opened or acquired, with the net store count growing at a compound annual store growth rate of 4% over this period. The Company intends to open or acquire additional stores in locations where management believes appropriate consumer demand and other favorable conditions exist. The following table details stores opened and acquired over the five-year period ended December 31, 2023:

Year Ended December 31,
2023
2022202120202019
U.S. pawn segment:
New locations opened5 — — — 
Locations acquired91 30 46 22 27 
Total additions96 30 47 22 27 
Latin America pawn segment:
New locations opened61 45 60 75 89 
Locations acquired — 40 163 
Total additions61 46 60 115 252 
Total:
New locations opened66 45 61 75 89 
Locations acquired91 31 46 62 190 
Total additions157 76 107 137 279 

For additional information on store count activity, see “Pawn Store Locations” below.

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New Store Openings

The Company typically opens new stores in under-served markets and neighborhoods. After a suitable location has been identified and a lease and the appropriate licenses are obtained, a new store can typically open for business within six to 12 weeks. The investment required to open a new location includes store operating cash, inventory, funds for pawn loans, leasehold improvements, store fixtures, security systems, computer equipment and other start-up costs.

Acquisitions

Due to the fragmented nature of the pawn industry, the Company believes attractive acquisition opportunities will continue to arise in both the U.S. and Latin America. Specific pawn store acquisition criteria include an evaluation of the volume of merchandise sales and pawn transactions, outstanding customer pawn loan balances, historical pawn yields, merchandise sales margins, pawn loan redemption rates, the condition and quantity of inventory on hand, licensing restrictions or requirements, and the location, physical condition, and lease terms of the stores to be acquired.

Enhance Productivity of Existing and Newly Opened Stores

The primary factors affecting the profitability of the Company’s existing store base are the volume and gross profit of merchandise sales, the volume of and yield on pawn loans and store operating expenses. To increase customer traffic and encourage repeat business, which management believes is a key determinant of a store’s success, the Company has taken several steps to distinguish its stores and to make customers feel more comfortable and secure. In addition to a clean and secure physical store facility, the stores’ exteriors typically display attractive and distinctive signage similar to that used by contemporary specialty retailers.

The Company believes the profitability of its pawnshops is dependent, among other factors, upon its employees’ skills and ability to engage with customers and provide prompt and courteous service. The Company has employee training programs that promote customer service, productivity, professionalism, regulatory compliance and information privacy and security. The Company’s proprietary POS and loan management system tracks certain key transactional performance measures, including pawn loan yields and merchandise sales margins, and permits a store manager or clerk to instantly recall the cost of an item in inventory and the date it was purchased, including the prior transaction history of a particular customer. It also facilitates the timely valuation of goods by showing values assigned to similar goods. The Company has networked its stores to allow employees to more accurately determine the retail value of merchandise and to permit the Company’s headquarters to more efficiently monitor, in real time, each store’s operations, including merchandise sales, pawn loan fee revenue, pawn loans written and redeemed and changes in inventory.

The Company maintains a well-trained audit and loss prevention staff which conducts regular store visits to verify assets, loans and collateral, and test compliance with regulatory, financial, security and operational controls. Management believes its controls and systems are adequate for the Company’s existing store base and can accommodate reasonably foreseeable growth in the near term.


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Pawn Store Locations

The Company’s typical large format pawn store is a freestanding building or part of a retail shopping center with dedicated available parking. Many of the Company’s acquired stores in Latin America tend to be smaller than its U.S. stores, especially those located in dense urban markets that may not have dedicated parking. Management has established a standard store design intended to facilitate operations and provide a positive customer experience.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company operated 2,997 pawn store locations composed of 1,183 stores in 29 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, 1,721 stores in 32 states in Mexico, 65 stores in Guatemala, 14 stores in Colombia and 14 stores in El Salvador.

The following table details store count activity for the year ended December 31, 2023:

U.S. Latin AmericaTotal
Total locations, beginning of period1,101 1,771 2,872 
New locations opened (1)
61 66 
Locations acquired91 — 91 
Consolidation of existing pawn locations (2)
(14)(18)(32)
Total locations, end of period1,183 1,814 2,997 

(1)In addition to new store openings, the Company strategically relocated four stores in the U.S. and two stores in Latin America during 2023.

(2)Store consolidations were primarily acquired locations over the past seven years which have been combined with overlapping stores and for which the Company expects to maintain a significant portion of the acquired customer base in the consolidated location.



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As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s pawn stores were located in the following countries and states:

Number of Locations
U.S.Latin America
Texas481 Mexico:
Florida87 Estado de. Mexico (State of Mexico)215 
Ohio59 Veracruz207 
North Carolina54 Puebla114 
Georgia
49 Tamaulipas99 
Tennessee
48 Nuevo Leon95 
Arizona
47 
Jalisco
85 
Illinois
36 Baja California81 
Nevada30 Estado de Ciudad de Mexico (State of Mexico City)71 
Louisiana
29 Chiapas67 
Washington
29 Oaxaca58 
Maryland
28 Coahuila55 
South Carolina
27 Hidalgo54 
Colorado
25 Guanajuato51 
Alabama
24 Tabasco46 
Kentucky
23 Chihuahua45 
Indiana
22 Sonora41 
Missouri
22 Quintana Roo31 
Oklahoma19 Sinaloa30 
Virginia
13 Michoacan29 
Alaska
Morelos27 
Utah
San Luis Potosi26 
Oregon
Guerrero24 
District of ColumbiaDurango22 
North Dakota
Aguascalientes21 
South Dakota
Queretaro21 
Mississippi
Campeche18 
Iowa
Tlaxcala18 
NebraskaYucatan18 
WyomingZacatecas18 
U.S. total1,183 Baja California Sur13 
Colima11 
Nayarit10 
1,721 
Guatemala65 
Colombia14 
El Salvador14 
Latin America total1,814 

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Pawn Operations Competitive Environment

The Company encounters significant competition in connection with all aspects of its pawn operations. These competitive conditions may adversely affect the Company’s pawn revenue and profitability and its ability to expand and execute its pawn business strategy. The Company believes the primary drivers for competitive success in the pawn industry are store location, customer service, the ability to lend competitive amounts on pawn loans and to sell popular retail merchandise at competitive prices. In addition, the Company competes with other lenders and retailers to attract and retain employees with competitive compensation programs. Many of the competitors’ individual retail locations have significantly greater size, financial resources and human capital than the Company.

The Company’s retail business competitors include numerous retail and wholesale merchants, including jewelry stores, rent-to-own operators, discount retail stores, “second-hand” stores, consumer electronics stores, other specialty retailers, online retailers, online auction sites, online marketplace sites and other pawnshops. Competitive factors in the Company’s retail operations include the ability to provide the customer with a variety of merchandise items at attractive prices.

The Company’s pawn lending business competes primarily with other specialty consumer finance lenders, including pawn store operators, payday loan stores, branch-based lenders and other specialty consumer finance operators, including online lenders. The pawnshop and other specialty consumer finance industries are characterized by a large number of independent owner-operators, some of whom own and operate multiple locations. In addition, the Company competes with other non-specialty consumer finance lenders, such as banks, credit card providers and other consumer finance companies, which generally lend on an unsecured as well as a secured basis. Other non-specialty lenders may, and do, lend money on financial terms more favorable than those offered by the Company.

Management believes the pawn industry remains highly fragmented with an estimated 12,000 to 14,000 total pawnshops in the U.S. and 7,000 to 8,000 total pawnshops in Mexico. Including the Company, there are two publicly-held, U.S.-based pawnshop operators, both of which have pawn operations in the U.S., Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. The Company is the largest public or private operator of large format, full-service pawn stores in the U.S. and Mexico.

Retail POS Payment Solutions Operations

AFF facilitates customized LTO and retail finance programs to its merchant partners, allowing those merchant partners to complete sales by providing their customers with a retail POS payment solution. Customers can apply for AFF’s products online or through their mobile devices and complete the process electronically or in person at one of AFF’s merchant partner locations. AFF primarily serves customers who are credit-constrained who may not qualify for prime or near prime retail payment options. Net revenues (gross profit) from AFF accounted for 18% of the Company’s consolidated net revenues during 2023.

Products Offered by AFF

AFF’s merchant partners may provide consumer goods and services to their customers using one of AFF’s retail POS payment options, including a LTO product, a merchant-based retail installment sales agreement (“RISA”) or a bank-originated installment loan, to facilitate payments on such transactions. The merchant partners provide a single retail POS payment solution from one of these three available options to offer to all of their customers at a given location. The merchant’s selection of the appropriate retail POS payment option depends upon applicable regulations in the state in which the merchant operates, including which payment options are allowable under applicable state law, whether AFF’s bank partner makes loans in the state where the merchant is located and which type of products or services are offered by the merchant. The majority of AFF’s originations are facilitated with the LTO product, with retailers of furniture and other tangible personal property most commonly using the LTO product. The RISA and bank-originated products are more commonly offered in situations where services are being offered by the merchant. Each of these retail POS payment options is subject to AFF’s (or AFF’s partner bank’s) proprietary technology-driven decisioning process as further described below. AFF’s ability to customize the technology and offer a choice between retail POS payment options provides its merchant partners the ability to identify the most effective solution for its business and customers.

The following is a description of the three primary retail POS payment options offered by AFF:

LTO — LTO transactions involve the purchase by AFF of tangible personal property directly from the merchant partner and a subsequent lease of that merchandise by AFF to the customer through a consumer rental purchase agreement under applicable state laws. Customers can cancel their agreements at any time, without penalty, by
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returning the merchandise. The terms of the leased merchandise contracts generally provide for weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly, or monthly rental periods and give the customers the option to acquire ownership of the merchandise over a fixed term, typically between six and 24 months, if the customer leases the merchandise through that term. The customer has the right to acquire ownership of the leased merchandise either through an early buyout option, through another early purchase option after the early buyout option expires, or through payment of all required lease renewal payments. To take advantage of the early buyout option, the customer generally has between 90 and 101 days to pay the cash price of the leased merchandise, plus a nominal early buyout fee. The customer can still utilize an early purchase option after the early buyout period ends and obtain ownership before the end of the lease by paying a certain percentage of the remaining lease renewal payments (usually established by applicable state law). The customer can also obtain ownership of the merchandise by simply paying all of the remaining lease renewal payments as they become due. Conversely, the customer has the right to choose not to renew the lease at any time by returning the merchandise. AFF offers the LTO retail POS payment option to merchant partners in 45 U.S. states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, and such option accounted for 76% of AFF’s total revenues during 2023.

RISA — The RISA transaction involves the purchase of either tangible personal property or services from the merchant partner by the customer. The customer enters into a RISA with the merchant, and AFF subsequently purchases the RISA from the merchant partner and services the account through the end of the contractual term. The customer can take advantage of an early payoff discount, whereby the customer generally has between 90 and 101 days to pay the original principal amount, plus a nominal early payoff discount fee (equal to or less than the accrued interest charges), without incurring any additional interest charges. RISA finance receivables typically have a term ranging from six to 24 months, and when utilized for the purchase of tangible personal property, are generally secured by such tangible personal property. AFF facilitates the RISA retail POS payment option with merchant partners in 20 U.S. states, and such option accounted for 10% of AFF’s total revenues during 2023.

Bank-originated installment loans — The customer enters into an installment loan directly with a Utah state-chartered non-member bank (the “Bank”), for the purchase of a good or service from the merchant partner. After origination of the loan by the Bank, AFF purchases the rights to the cash flows of the loan from the Bank but does not purchase the loan itself. AFF then assumes responsibility for sub-servicing the loan on behalf of the Bank for the remaining term of the loan. The customer can take advantage of an early payoff discount, whereby the customer generally has between 90 and 101 days to pay the original principal amount (including any origination fee) without paying any interest charges. Bank-originated loans typically have a term ranging from six to 24 months and can be either secured by tangible personal property or unsecured. Approximately 71% of these loans are related to the purchase of property or services while approximately 29% are loans with cash proceeds issued directly to the customer. The bank-originated installment loan retail POS payment option is made available to merchant partners in 34 U.S. states, and such option accounted for 14% of AFF’s total revenues during 2023.

Decisioning Process

AFF has made substantial investments in the development of its unique and proprietary decisioning platform that is customizable to individual merchants and/or merchandise categories. The platform is supported by an experienced and robust data science team that uses data analytics to continually improve the performance of the decisioning platform. This proprietary decisioning platform is used to determine whether a particular applicant meets AFF’s LTO or RISA decisioning criteria or the Bank’s loan qualifications for a particular amount. The sophisticated algorithms consider external and internal data points beyond traditional credit scores, allowing AFF or the Bank to approve customers that do not have a credit score. AFF employs an automated application decisioning process, creating a highly efficient, scalable model.

While the Bank utilizes AFF’s technology platform to process and evaluate consumer applications originated by the Bank, all credit underwriting and approval criteria used by the Bank to underwrite the loans are provided and approved under the Bank’s exclusive authority.

Customer Service

AFF believes its strong focus on building a positive relationship with the customer and ensuring high levels of customer satisfaction generates repeat customer business and long-lasting relationships with its merchant partners.

AFF strives to make the application process for its LTO, RISA or bank loan products user-friendly for its customers. AFF customers can apply for the AFF products via text-2-apply, QR codes, web applications on merchant websites, merchant portal applications, in-cart plug-in experiences and third-party waterfall applications. Upon submission of an application, AFF’s platform typically communicates a decision (either directly for LTO or RISA products or on behalf of the Bank for the bank
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loan product) within seconds, providing a near immediate response to the customer. The customer then purchases goods or services using the POS payment option applicable for that particular merchant location and makes scheduled payments, which can be managed by the customer via phone or online.

Customers receive an introductory email from AFF’s customer service team to welcome them as new customers to AFF, answer any questions they may have about their new account and remind them of their payment schedule. Existing customers have access to AFF’s customer service team and online customer portal to answer questions about their lease, RISA or loan or to provide comments or complaints about merchant partners. For those customers that utilize AFF’s LTO solution and choose not to renew their lease, AFF’s customer service team can also assist with the non-renewal process.

The amount and timing of a customer’s contractual periodic payment (e.g., weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly, or monthly) is generally based on a customer's pay frequency and the term of the contract. Customer payments are typically processed through automated clearing house payments or debits to the customer’s payment card (e.g., through a Visa or MasterCard network). Consumers can choose between scheduling automated payments to process on their accounts and making manual, non-recurring payments on each due date. If a customer account becomes delinquent, collection activities are managed through AFF’s call centers and/or AFF’s network of third-party debt collection agencies. The call center contacts customers through several communication channels to assist the customer with keeping their lease, RISA or loan current. These channels include phone calls, text messages, emails, and chat. AFF utilizes a number of tools to ensure the quality of its call center operations, including call-monitoring software, manual call reviews, quality assurance score cards, role-based training, automated on-screen scripts, regular call calibrations, and real-time alerts to supervisors. See “Item 1. Business—Governmental Regulation” for further information about applicable collections laws to which AFF is subject.

Merchant Relationships

AFF believes that its highly customizable LTO, RISA and bank loan products offer significant value to merchant partners. AFF’s products can help drive further sales for these merchants by helping them reach credit-constrained customers through the offer of AFF’s financing solutions. AFF also constantly monitors consumer preferences and trends to ensure that the solutions offered through their merchant partners are aligned with the needs of the merchant partner and its customers.

AFF attracts and sources new merchants through various channels, including field sales representatives, national sales, independent sales representatives, buying groups, AFF’s website and strategic integrations via waterfall lending platforms. To ensure merchant quality, each prospective merchant goes through a vetting and approval process and, once approved, they must sign a merchant agreement that identifies the roles and responsibilities of both the merchant and AFF. Merchants also receive appropriate training so they can properly represent AFF’s retail POS payment solutions to their customers and ensure regulatory compliance.

Approved merchant partners are subject to regular monitoring. AFF’s monitoring procedures are designed to identify merchant partners that do not meet AFF’s merchant standards. Merchant partners are subject to suspension and/or termination if, based upon the results of AFF’s monitoring, they are found to be out of compliance with the merchant agreement, have low lease or loan quality performance, have elevated customer complaint volume or fail to comply with applicable laws.

AFF currently has approximately 11,600 active retail merchant partner locations and e-commerce platforms offering its leasing and financing products. Those merchant partners offer a wide array of goods and services spanning 26 vertical channels. The following table shows the percentage of AFF's 2023 originations attributable to these vertical channels:

Year Ended December 31, 2023
Furniture48 %
Automotive19 %
Jewelry%
Other25 %
Total100 %

A significant portion of AFF’s revenue is concentrated with its top merchant partners. While this concentration has provided AFF with opportunities for growth, the increasing size and importance of individual merchant partners creates a certain degree of exposure to potential transaction volume loss. AFF’s top five merchant partners accounted for an aggregate of 15% of consolidated 2023 revenues. For a discussion of the risks associated with the possible loss of one of AFF’s top merchant partners or a significant reduction in transaction volumes with one of its top merchant partners, refer to “Item 1A. Risk
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Factors.”
Retail POS Payment Solutions Business Strategy

AFF’s business strategy is to continue building market share through additional expansion of both its brick-and-mortar and online merchant base while increasing customer utilization rates by continuous improvement and enhancement of its omni-channel user experience. AFF continues to expand its digital marketing and search engine optimization strategies to harvest more consumer searches and to drive quality repeat customers back to its merchant partners. With an ongoing focus toward improving application conversion rates for qualified applicants combined with an enhanced risk segmentation of its applications, AFF believes that it has numerous opportunities to gain additional market share and expand its large and fast-growing merchant and customer base to achieve greater levels of revenue and profitability.

Retail POS Payment Solutions Competitive Environment

AFF’s retail POS payment solutions business competes with national, regional and local LTO stores, virtual LTO companies, rental stores that do not offer their customers a purchase option, buy now / pay later providers, and various other types of consumer finance companies that may enable customers to shop at traditional or online retailers on credit. In addition, banks and consumer finance companies are developing POS payment products and services designed to compete for the credit-constrained customer. AFF also competes with traditional and e-commerce retailers and traditional and online sellers of new and used merchandise for customers desiring to purchase merchandise for cash or on credit. Competition is based primarily on product selection and availability, customer service, store location and lease and loan terms.

Intellectual Property

The Company relies on a combination of trademarks, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary software, website domain names and other rights, including confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect its proprietary technology, processes and other intellectual property.

The Company’s competitors may develop products that are similar to its own technology, such as the Company’s proprietary pawn POS and loan management software, AFF’s proprietary lease, financing and loan management software, AFF’s proprietary decisioning platform and other developed technology. The Company enters into agreements with its employees, consultants and partners, and through these and other confidentiality or non-compete agreements, the Company attempts to control access to and distribution of its software, documentation and other proprietary technology and information. Despite the Company’s efforts to protect its proprietary rights, third parties may, in an authorized or unauthorized manner, attempt to use, copy or otherwise obtain and market or distribute its intellectual property rights or technology or otherwise develop products with the same functionality as its solutions. Policing all unauthorized use of the Company’s intellectual property rights is nearly impossible. The Company cannot be certain that the steps it has taken or will take in the future will prevent misappropriations of its technology or intellectual property rights.

Environmental, Social and Governance Overview

Pawnshops are neighborhood-based stores that contribute to the modern “circular economy” which encourages reduced resource consumption and waste, decreased environmental footprints and emissions along with economic growth and job creations. Each of the Company’s 2,997 pawn locations provides consumers a neighborhood-based market to buy and resell pre-owned and popular consumer products in a safe environment along with access to a quick and convenient source of short-term cash through non-recourse pawn transactions. In addition, through AFF, the Company provides POS payment solutions through technology-enabled virtual LTO and consumer finance platforms with minimal environmental impact. In summary, the Company provides millions of customers with rapid access to capital while operating its business in a manner that results in a positive impact on its employees, communities and the environment.

Environmental Sustainability

The Company’s pawn business extends the life cycle and utilization of popular consumer products. Most of the Company’s merchandise inventories are pre-owned items sourced directly from local customers in each store’s immediate geographic neighborhood. In effect, the Company operates a large consumer product recycling business by acquiring pre-owned items, including unwanted or unneeded jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods and musical instruments, from individual customers and resells them to other customers desiring such products within the same neighborhood. As a large and significant acquirer and reseller of pre-owned items, the Company believes it extends the life of these products and helps reduce demand for newly manufactured and distributed products, thereby reducing carbon emissions and water usage, resulting in a positive impact to the environment.
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The Company estimates that it resold approximately 12 million individual used or pre-owned consumer product items in its pawn stores during 2023, with a commercial value of approximately $1.4 billion. In addition, the Company recycles significant volumes of precious metals and diamonds whereby unwanted or broken jewelry is collected and melted/processed by the Company and then resold as a commodity for future commercial use. During 2023, the Company estimates that it recycled over 50,000 ounces of gold and approximately 40,000 carats of diamonds with a combined market value of over $125 million. This process helps reduce demand for mined precious metals and diamonds, which benefits the environment by reducing carbon emissions, water usage and other harmful environmental impacts of mining.

Unlike most brick-and-mortar or online retailers, the Company does not rely on supply chains or manufacturing of its inventories, as it sources the majority of its inventory from forfeited pawn loan collateral and merchandise purchased directly from customers. Accordingly, the Company generally does not own, operate or contract for manufacturing, supply chain, warehousing or distribution facilities to support its pawn operations. Almost all retail sales and pawn loans are made to customers who live or work within a tight geographic radius of the Company’s stores. The Company does not own, lease or operate any long-haul trucks to support its 2,997 pawn locations and, other than operating small storefront locations which are typically 5,000 square feet or less, the Company’s operations leave a limited carbon footprint compared to manufacturers and retailers selling new merchandise with extensive supply chain and distribution channels. The Company is working to further reduce energy consumption by retrofitting buildings with LED lighting and reducing corporate travel by utilizing remote work and meeting technologies.

Safe Capital Access Solutions in Underserved Communities

It is estimated by multiple studies and surveys that approximately 25% of U.S. households remain unbanked or under-banked. In Latin America, the number of unbanked or under-banked consumers can be as much as 75% of the population. As a result, the majority of the Company’s customers have limited access to traditional forms of credit or capital. The Company contributes to its communities by providing these customers with instant access to capital through very small, non-recourse pawn loans or by purchasing merchandise from such customers. The average credit provided by the Company’s pawn business to a customer is $258 in the U.S. and $95 in Latin America. Traditional lenders such as banks, credit unions, credit card providers or other small loan providers do not efficiently or effectively offer micro credit products of this size.

Applying for a pawn loan is simple, requiring only a valid government ID and an item of personal property owned by the customer. The Company does not investigate the creditworthiness of a pawn customer, nor does it matter if the customer has defaulted on a previous pawn loan with the Company. Unlike most credit products, pawn customers are not required to have a bank account, a good credit history or the ability to document their level of income. The process of obtaining a pawn loan is extremely fast, generally taking 15 minutes or less. Loans are funded immediately by providing customers cash.

Pawn loans include loan terms that are highly transparent and easy to understand. These fiscally responsible products are regulated, safe and affordable non-recourse loans for which the customer has no legal obligation to repay. All terms are provided in short, easy-to-read contracts that allow the Company’s customers to make well-informed decisions before obtaining a loan.

Pawn loans differ from most other forms of small-dollar lending as the Company does not engage in post-default collection efforts on delinquent loans, does not take legal actions against its customers for defaulted loans, does not ban its customers for nonpayment, nor does it issue any negative credit information to external credit agencies, but rather relies only on the resale of the pawn collateral for recovery.

POS Payment Solutions Products Provide Technology-Driven Solutions with Low Environmental Impact

AFF utilizes a paperless online application process for its POS payment solutions products. Upon submission of an application, AFF’s platform typically communicates a decision (either directly for LTO or RISA products or on behalf of the Bank for the bank loan product) electronically within seconds, providing a near-immediate response to the applicant. Upon approval, the applicant then electronically signs their agreement, officially becoming a customer of AFF, and completes their purchase of goods or services using the POS payment option applicable for that particular merchant location. Customers can begin making scheduled payments, which can be managed by the customer via phone or online. Most other customer communications are handled by phone, online or electronic communications. The virtual nature of AFF’s business model means it operates no retail or consumer facing facilities and has a limited administrative facilities footprint of less than 46,000 square feet.


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Social and Corporate Responsibility

The Company promotes a strong corporate culture that emphasizes ethics, accountability and treating customers fairly. This culture is supported by a governance framework with board level oversight of the Company's compliance and internal audit functions and includes the following:

The Company’s pawn and POS payment solutions operations are licensed and supervised in every jurisdiction in which the Company operates and are subject to regular regulatory exams in almost all of these jurisdictions.
A formal compliance management system for both pawn and POS payment solutions operations is maintained by the Company in all markets in which it operates. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors (the “Board”) receives quarterly updates regarding compliance matters and customer complaint activity.
Consumer-facing marketing materials and other POS advertising operations must comply with established Company policies. All such materials undergo an internal review and approval process to ensure such materials include legally required consumer disclosures, which helps consumers make informed financial decisions before entering into any agreements.
Debt collection activities performed within the Company’s POS payment solutions operations are also governed by Company policies. An ongoing process of monitoring, training, and auditing staff adherence to these policies is an integral part of the Company’s daily operations, which helps to both minimize consumer complaints and ensure that debt collection activities are performed in accordance with applicable federal and state collections laws. Given that pawn loans are non-recourse, the Company’s pawn stores do not perform any debt collection activities.
A “single point of contact” issue resolution function is available to all customers, including customer service hotlines and websites.
Strict data privacy and protection policies are maintained for personal information of customers and employees.
Introduction of any significant new products, services and business lines are subject to approval by the Board.

The Company has significant operations in Mexico, where the majority of its employees and customers reside. Accordingly, the Company has focused significant time and resources on corporate and social responsibility initiatives in supporting disadvantaged people who live and work in this market.

The Company is certified in Mexico as an Empresa Socialmente Responsable (“ESR”), or a socially responsible company under the XII Latin American Meeting of Corporate Social Responsibility Framework. This ESR certification is granted to companies that meet a series of criteria that generally cover the economic, social and environmental sustainability of its operations, including corporate ethics, good governance, the quality of life of the Company’s employees and a proven commitment to the betterment of the community where it operates, including the care and preservation of the environment.

The Company has also established relationships and supports certain foundations and social programs in Mexico that provide internships, reading initiatives and recycling programs for disadvantaged citizens. For instance, the Company participated in the Government Program of Youth Building the Future in Mexico in 2023 by providing year-long apprenticeships to female participants aspiring to build careers in legal, human resources, and information technology. The Mexico Secretary of Labor awarded the Company the Recognition of Social Commitment as a result of the Company’s participation in this program.

In North Texas, where the Company is headquartered, the Company has made meaningful investments in the local community in the form of employee volunteer service hours and matching certain employee-donations to non-profits. The Communities Foundation of Texas has recognized AFF as a Be In Good Company member for AFF’s community engagement.

Human Capital Resources

In managing its human capital resources, the Company aims to attract a qualified and diverse workforce through an inclusive and accessible recruiting process that utilizes online recruiting platforms, campus outreach, internships and job fairs. In order to increase retention of its employees, the Company is focused on providing competitive and attractive wages and benefits (which includes a store-level profit-sharing program for its pawn store employees) and extensive training and advancement opportunities as well as fostering a diverse, safe, healthy and secure workplace.


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The Company believes that it complies with all applicable state, local and international laws governing nondiscrimination in employment in jurisdictions in which the Company operates. All applicants and employees are treated with the same high level of respect regardless of their gender, ethnicity, religion, national origin, age, marital status, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability or protected veteran status.

The Company maintains complaint resolution policies and procedures as well as a whistleblower hotline available to all employees and external stakeholders to report (anonymously if desired) any matter of concern. The communications hotline is managed by an independent third party, and such communications are routed to appropriate functions such as Human Resources, Legal or Compliance. The Company operates a whistleblower hotline review committee which includes members from Human Resources, Legal and Compliance to review all cases as a group before any case is closed. Complaint trends and statistics compiled from the Company’s internal complaint resolution procedures and along with all communications made to the whistleblower hotline are reported to the Board quarterly for review and further investigation, if warranted.

Employee Development and Career Opportunities

The Company believes in attracting top talent by offering a competitive wage and employee-selected benefit options and retaining them by providing an environment where employees can see that their career has a clear path of growth. To help facilitate that growth, the Company provides tools, resources and programs that adapt and grow with its team members. These efforts include the following:

Providing all store support team members and all management across the Company access to a library of third-party courses enabling the development of new employment-related skills that contribute to career growth and development.
Delivering an in-house designed continuous learning program to avail store team members a career path with the destination of their choosing while using custom learning solutions designed to add and confirm both competencies and proficiencies throughout all levels of their career. The learning takes a blended approach involving formal courses, self-directed learning and on-the-job applications.
Coordinating and enrolling training, at least annually, including compliance and anti-harassment training to all team members, as well as ethics and leadership training to all management-level team members.
Providing team members with recurring training on critical issues such as safety and security, lending and collection practices, ethics and integrity, information security and other compliance matters.
Offering a tuition reimbursement program to U.S. employees for courses related to current or future roles at the Company and also discounted tuition rates to select universities.
Offering all U.S. eligible employees health and life insurance benefits and a comprehensive suite of well-being offerings, including unlimited health coaching sessions, unlimited financial coaching sessions with a certified financial planner and counseling/emotional support through the Company’s Employee Assistance program.
Matching team members’ 401(k) plan contributions for all U.S. employees after one year of service.
Offering access to thousands of partner discounts for services and products through the partner portal.
Offering a “work now - paid tomorrow” program through the Earned Wage Access Program.
Providing all employees in Latin America public healthcare and other statutory benefits where required by statute. In Mexico, the Company’s largest Latin American market, most management-level employees and tenured store and administrative employees are provided private health insurance. All eligible employees in Mexico also participate in a statutory profit sharing program.

Workplace Profile

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had approximately 19,000 employees across six countries (the U.S., Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, El Salvador and Jamaica). The Company employed approximately 7,800 employees in the U.S. as of December 31, 2023, including approximately 1,200 persons employed in executive, supervisory, administrative and accounting functions. None of the Company’s U.S. employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. The Company employed approximately 11,200 employees in Latin America as of December 31, 2023, including approximately 1,000 persons employed in executive, supervisory, administrative and accounting functions. The Company’s Mexico employees are covered by labor agreements as required under Mexico’s Federal Labor Law. None of the Company’s other Latin American employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements.

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Global Gender Demographics

Among the Company’s global workforce as of December 31, 2023, 56% identify as women and 44% as men. In management positions for the Company’s global operations, 56% identify as women and 44% as men as of December 31, 2023.
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U.S. Race and Ethnicity Demographics

Of all U.S. employees as of December 31, 2023, 44% identify as Hispanic, 21% as Black, 1% as Asian, 4% as two or more races or Other and 30% as White. Among managers in the Company’s U.S. operations as of December 31, 2023, 46% identify as Hispanic, 15% as Black, 1% as Asian, 3% as two or more races or Other and 35% as White.
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Employee Empowerment

The Company is committed to creating a safe, trusted and diverse environment in which its employees can thrive. Total employee compensation is typically above the minimum wage standards in each country in which it operates. The Company also believes in fairly compensating its employees by providing the ability to share in the Company’s profitability. For example, the majority of the Company’s front-line, store-based employees participate in a non-qualified profit sharing program that pays up to 8% of the gross profit an employee personally produces through assigned customer service activities.

Health and Safety

The Company is committed to the health, safety and wellness of its employees. The Company provides its employees and their families with access to a variety of flexible and convenient health and wellness programs, including benefits that provide protection and security so they can have peace of mind when navigating events that may require time away from work or that impact their financial well-being, that support their physical and mental health by providing tools and resources to help them improve or maintain their health status and encourage engagement in healthy behaviors, and that offer choice, where possible, so they can customize their benefits to meet their needs and the needs of their families.

The operation of the Company’s stores is critically dependent on the ability of customers and employees to safely work and conduct transactions. The Company continues to make and maintain significant investments in its physical security infrastructure and monitoring capabilities in both its corporate facilities and individual store locations. In addition, there are strict procedures and protocols in the pawn stores to promote a safe, clean and healthy environment for employees and customers.

A number of the Company’s Mexico locations are designated as an orange dot (“Punto Naranja”) by IMMUJER, the Mexico Municipal Women’s Institute. An orange dot is a designated safe space for women who have been victims of community sexual violence or harassment and that is equipped to provide support to such women and contact emergency authorities.

Governance

The Board and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board routinely assess the composition and size of the Board and aim to strike a balance between the knowledge and understanding of the business that comes from longer-term service on the Board and the fresh ideas and perspective that come from adding new members. As part of this assessment, the Board and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee seek a board that includes directors from diverse professional and personal backgrounds with a broad spectrum of experience and expertise and a reputation for integrity. The Board considers gender, race, nationality, language skills and other personal characteristics in this process and strives to reflect the gender, racial, ethnic and global diversity of the Company’s stockholders, employees and customers. In part due to these assessments, the Board has added three new directors since 2021, including two female directors, one of whom is racially diverse.

Governmental Regulation

General Overview

The Company’s pawn and retail POS payments solutions businesses are subject to significant regulation by various laws, regulations, ordinances and regulatory pronouncements from federal, state and municipal governmental entities in the U.S. and Latin America, all of which are constantly evolving and subject to potentially significant changes. These statutes and regulations prescribe, among other things, the general terms of the Company’s pawn loan agreements, including maximum service fees and/or interest rates that may be charged and collected and mandatory consumer disclosures, as well as maximum interest rates/finance charges or leasing fees (as applicable), consumer disclosures, contractual terms and other matters directly related to the Company’s retail POS payments solutions platform activities. The Company is also required to obtain and maintain regulatory licenses and comply with periodic regulatory reporting and registration requirements. In general, the regulatory regimes to which the Company are subject are increasingly focused on consumer finance companies serving credit-constrained customers, and any of these agencies or authorities may propose and adopt new regulations, or interpret existing regulations, in a manner that could result in significant adverse changes in the regulatory landscape for businesses such as the Company’s. In addition, the current presidential administration in the U.S. has taken a more aggressive enforcement stance against all consumer finance companies that, like the Company, serve credit-constrained customers.

For a discussion of the risks related to the Company’s regulatory environment, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Regulatory, Legislative and Legal Risks.”
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U.S. Federal Regulations

The U.S. government and its agencies have significant regulatory authority over the Company’s activities, and its business is subject to a variety of federal laws, including but not limited to the following:

Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) Act and Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”) — The FTC and the CFPB regulate advertising for, the marketing of, and practices related to the origination and servicing of financial products and services. The FTC is charged with preventing, investigating and remediating unfair or deceptive acts or practices and false or misleading advertisements, and the CFPB is charged with preventing unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices. The CFPB has regulatory, supervisory and enforcement powers over certain providers of consumer financial products and services. The CFPB also has the authority to issue civil investigative demands and pursue administrative proceedings or litigation for actual or perceived violations of federal consumer financial laws (including the CFPB’s own rules). In these proceedings, the CFPB can seek consent orders, confidential memorandums of understanding, cease and desist orders (which can include orders for redisclosure, restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as affirmative or injunctive relief) and monetary penalties. On November 12, 2021, the Company was named as a defendant in a lawsuit brought by the CFPB alleging violations of the Military Lending Act (“MLA”) as discussed elsewhere herein. For a discussion of the risks to the Company’s business related to CFPB regulation, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Regulatory, Legislative and Legal Risks and General Economic and Market Risks.”

On October 5, 2017, the CFPB released its small-dollar loan rule (the “SDL Rule”), which was subsequently revised on July 7, 2020. Traditional possessory, non-recourse pawn loans are not covered under the SDL Rule. The SDL Rule defines some of the RISA transactions that AFF purchases and some of the bank loans that AFF sub-services as transactions that are covered under the rule. On October 19, 2022, in a challenge to the SDL Rule, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held that the CFPB’s funding mechanism was unconstitutional, rendering the SDL Rule invalid. The CFPB then filed a petition for a writ of certiorari with the U.S. Supreme Court, asking the Supreme Court to uphold the CFPB’s funding mechanism to be constitutional, which would render the SDL Rule valid. The Supreme Court accepted review of the Fifth Circuit’s decision and heard oral arguments on October 3, 2023. The SDL Rule will remain on hold during the pendency of the Supreme Court’s decision with respect to the appeal.

Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”) — The ECOA and its implementing regulation known as Regulation B, is a consumer protection law stating that individuals applying for loans and other credit products can be evaluated only using factors directly related to their creditworthiness. The law is intended to promote the availability of credit to all creditworthy applicants without regard to race, color, religion, or other prohibited bases, and to prevent discrimination on the basis of any of those factors in any aspect of a credit transaction. The ECOA also imposes certain disclosure obligations with respect to action taken on an application for credit and is applicable to the Company’s RISA and bank loan products.

Electronic Fund Transfer Act (“EFTA”) — The EFTA and its implementing Regulation known as Regulation E, is a consumer protection law affecting electronic fund transfers, including one-time and recurring preauthorized transactions utilized by the retail POS payment solutions business. AFF customers may elect to repay through the use of electronic funds transfers, requiring the Company to obtain the appropriate authorization from the consumer to enter into such transactions. The EFTA imposes certain disclosure and practice restriction requirements upon the Company and also grants certain rights to consumers.

MLA — The MLA requires the provision of certain disclosures at certain times and restricts, among other things, the interest rate and other terms that can be offered to active military personnel and their dependents on most types of consumer credit. The MLA caps the interest rate that may be offered to a covered borrower to a 36% military annual percentage rate (“MAPR”), which includes certain fees such as application fees, participation fees and fees for add-on products. The MLA also requires certain disclosures and prohibits certain terms, such as mandatory arbitration, if a dispute arises concerning the consumer credit product. The MLA covers overdraft lines of credit, pawn loans, RISAs, bank installment loans, and certain vehicle-secured and unsecured credit products, and restricts the Company’s ability to offer its products to military personnel and their dependents to the extent any such products have a MAPR greater than 36%. Failure to comply with the MLA may limit the Company’s ability to collect principal, interest, and fees from borrowers and may result in civil and criminal liability that could harm its business. Compliance with the MLA is complex, increases compliance risks and related costs and limits the potential customer base of the Company. The Company was named as a defendant in a lawsuit brought by the CFPB alleging violations of the MLA as discussed elsewhere herein.


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Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (“SCRA”) — The federal SCRA and similar state laws apply to certain transactions between the Company and servicemembers called to active duty in the United States military as defined within the SCRA, and may include reservists and members of the National Guard. The SCRA limits the rate of interest, including certain fees, that a covered servicemember may be charged, as well as the actions, including limitations on the ability to maintain legal action and obtain default judgments, that can be taken while the consumer is a covered servicemember.

Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”) — TILA and its implementing regulation known as Regulation Z, require creditors to deliver disclosures to borrowers at certain points during the life cycle of a loan or RISA, including when publishing certain advertisements, at application, at account opening and at consummation. The requirements may vary based upon product type (e.g., open-end versus closed-end credit products), as well as the timing and nature of certain events (e.g., post-consummation events). These disclosures include, among other things, the total amount of the finance charges and annual percentage rate.

Anti-Money Laundering and Economic Sanctions — The Company is subject to certain provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act and the Bank Secrecy Act under which it must maintain an anti-money laundering compliance program covering certain of its business activities.

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) — The Company’s credit products are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations relating to privacy and security of consumers’ nonpublic personal information. Under these laws, including the GLBA and Regulation P promulgated thereunder, the Company must disclose its privacy policy and practices, including those policies relating to the sharing of nonpublic personal information with third parties. The Company may also be required to provide an opt-out to certain sharing. The GLBA and other laws also require the Company to safeguard personal information. The FTC regulates the safeguarding requirements of the GLBA for non-bank lenders through its Safeguard Rules and recently amended the Safeguard Rules, which became effective on June 9, 2023, and with which the Company is required to comply. Since that time, the FTC further amended the Safeguards Rule on October 27, 2023, which will become effective on May 13, 2024, and with which the Company will be required to comply.

Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) — The Company is subject to the FCRA and its implementing regulation known as Regulation V, which regulate the use of consumer reports and reporting of information to credit reporting agencies. Specifically, the FCRA establishes requirements that apply to the use of “consumer reports” and similar data, including certain notifications to consumers, such as when an adverse action (e.g. loan declination), is based on information contained in a consumer report. The Company only obtains and uses consumer reports subject to the permissible purpose requirements under the FCRA, which also permits the Company to share its experiential information, information obtained from consumer reporting agencies and other customer information with affiliates. The Company complies with notice and opt-out requirements for prescreen solicitations and for certain information sharing under the FCRA and conducts reasonable investigations of disputes as applicable. The Company also has implemented an identity theft prevention program to fulfill the requirements of the Red Flags Regulations and Guidelines issued under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (“FACTA”).

Anti-Corruption — The Company is subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other similar laws in other jurisdictions, which generally prohibit companies and their agents or intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and/or other benefits.

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (“Brady Act”) U.S. pawn store locations that handle pawned firearms or buy and sell firearms must comply with the Brady Act. The Brady Act requires that federally licensed firearms dealers conduct a background check in connection with releasing, selling or otherwise disposing of firearms. In addition, the Company must also comply with various state law provisions and the regulations of the U.S. Department of Justice-Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms that require each pawn lending location dealing in guns to obtain a Federal Firearm License (“FFL”) and maintain a permanent record of all receipts and dispositions of firearms.

Telephone Consumer Protection Act — The Company is subject to the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and its implementing regulations (together, the “TCPA”) and the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission. The TCPA regulates the delivery of live and prerecorded telemarketing calls, non-marketing calls to cell phones through the use of an automated telephone dialing system, fax advertisements and text messages. For example, under the TCPA, it is unlawful to make many of these types of communications without the prior consent of the recipient. The TCPA also established a federal do-not-call registry with the Telemarketing Sales Rule. The number of lawsuits related to alleged violations of the TCPA have increased significantly in the U.S. in recent years. While the Company maintains policies and procedures reasonably designed to comply with the TCPA, the Company has been subject, and may continue to be subject, to legal actions alleging violations of the TCPA. While the Company believes such actions have been without merit, there is no guarantee that an adverse outcome in such matters would not have an adverse impact on the Company.

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U.S. State and Local Regulations

Pawn Business — The Company operates pawn stores in 29 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, all of which jurisdictions have licensing and/or fee regulations on pawnshop operations and employees, and are subject to regular regulatory audits in many states. In general, state statutes and regulations establish licensing requirements for pawnbrokers and may regulate various aspects of pawn transactions, including the purchase and sale of merchandise, service charges, fees and interest rates, the content and form of the pawn transaction agreement and the length of time a pawnbroker must hold a purchased item or forfeited pawn before it is made available for sale. Additionally, these statutes and regulations in various jurisdictions restrict or prohibit the Company from transferring and/or relocating its pawn licenses and restrict or prohibit the issuance of new licenses. Many of the Company’s pawn locations are also subject to local ordinances that require, among other things, local permits, licenses, record keeping requirements and procedures, daily transactions reports, and adherence to local law enforcement “do-not-buy-lists” by checking databases created and maintained by law enforcement.

AFF Business — In addition to federal regulatory oversight, nearly every state currently and specifically regulates LTO transactions via state statutes and regulations. This includes states in which AFF operates through existing merchant partners. The scope of LTO regulation, including permissible rental rates, fees and terms, varies from state to state. Some states require specific disclosures, mandate or prohibit certain terms and limit the total cost of ownership and fees that may be charged. Most state LTO laws require LTO companies to disclose to their customers the total number of payments, total amount and timing of all payments to acquire ownership of an item, and any other charges that may be imposed. The more restrictive state LTO laws limit the retail price for an item, limit the total cost of ownership that a customer may be required to pay to obtain ownership of an item, and/or regulate the "cost-of-rental" amount that LTO companies may charge on LTO transactions, generally defining "cost-of-rental" as lease fees paid in excess of the "retail" price of the goods. Where licensing or registration is required, the Company is subject to extensive state rules, licensing and examination. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in, among other things, refunds of excess charges, monetary penalties, revocation of required licenses, voiding of leases and other administrative enforcement actions.

Some states also specifically regulate via statutes and regulations the RISA transactions that AFF purchases from merchants. The scope of such RISA regulation varies from state to state. Most state RISA laws require certain consumer-facing disclosures, and some state RISA laws require AFF, as a purchaser of RISA transactions, to obtain a license or file a registration or notification with the applicable state regulator. Where licensing or registration is required, AFF is subject to extensive state rules, licensing and examination. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in, among other things, refunds of excess charges, monetary penalties, revocation of required licenses, and voiding of RISA transactions.

With respect to AFF’s sub-servicing of the Bank’s loans in which AFF holds an interest in the receivables, certain state statutes and regulations require that AFF maintain certain licenses and provide periodic reporting of activities related to that servicing activity. As a result of such licensure, AFF may also be subject to periodic supervisory examination by the applicable state regulator to review AFF’s business activities during the sub-servicing process for compliance with applicable state laws. Failure to maintain required licenses or act in compliance with applicable law may result in adverse findings, including, among others, potential enforcement, refunds of excess charges, monetary penalties and/or revocation of licenses.

In addition, from time to time, state regulatory agencies and state attorneys general have directed investigations or regulatory initiatives toward the Company’s industry or toward certain companies within the industry.

Mexico Regulations

The Company’s pawn business in Mexico is subject to various federal, state and local regulatory regimes affecting the pawn industry, as well as general business regulations in the areas of tax compliance, customs, consumer protection, anti-money laundering, public safety and employment matters, among others, by various federal, state and local governmental agencies.

Procuraduria Federal del Consumidor (“PROFECO”) — The Company’s pawn business in Mexico is regulated by PROFECO, Mexico’s primary federal consumer protection agency, which requires the Company to annually register its pawn stores, approve pawn contracts and disclose the interest rates and fees charged on pawn transactions.

PROFECO regulates the form and non-financial terms of pawn contracts and defines certain operating standards and procedures for pawnshops and consumer disclosures, establishes reporting requirements and requires all pawn businesses and their owners to register annually with and be approved by PROFECO in order to legally operate. Furthermore, as part of the new pawnshop application requirements, employees of new stores must obtain a pawnbroker certification. All operators must also comply with additional customer notice and disclosure provisions, bonding and insurance requirements to insure against loss or insolvency, reporting of certain types of suspicious transactions, and reporting to state law enforcement officials of certain transactions (or
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series of transactions) on a monthly basis to states’ attorneys general offices. There are significant fines and sanctions, including license revocation and operating suspensions, for failure to register and/or comply with PROFECO’s rules and regulations.

Anti-Money Laundering — Mexico’s anti-money laundering regulations, The Federal Law for the Prevention and Identification of Transactions with Funds From Illegal Sources, requires monthly reporting of certain transactions (or series of transactions) exceeding certain monetary limits, imposes strict maintenance of customer identification records and controls, and requires reporting of all foreign (non-Mexican) customer transactions.

Privacy Laws — Mexico’s Federal Personal Information Protection Act requires companies to protect, among other things, their customers’ personal information.

State and Local Regulations — Certain state and local governmental entities in Mexico also regulate pawn and retail businesses through state laws and local zoning and permitting ordinances. For example, in certain states where the Company has significant or concentrated operations, states have enacted legislation or implemented regulations which require special state operating permits for pawn stores, certification of pawn employees trained in valuation of merchandise, strict customer identification controls, collateral ownership certifications and/or detailed and specified transactional reporting of customers and operations. Certain other states have proposed, but have not yet enacted, similar legislation. Furthermore, certain municipalities in Mexico have attempted to further regulate or limit the operation of new and existing pawn stores through additional local business licensing, such as operating licenses, signage permits and safety permits, in addition to reporting requirements and the enactment of transaction taxes on certain pawn transactions. State and local agencies, including local and state police officials, often have unlimited and discretionary authority to suspend store operations pending an investigation of suspicious pawn transactions or resolution of actual or alleged regulatory, licensing and permitting issues.

Other Latin American Federal and Local Regulations

Similar to Mexico, certain federal, department and local governmental entities in Guatemala, Colombia and El Salvador also regulate the pawn industry and retail and commercial businesses. Certain federal laws and local zoning and permitting ordinances require basic commercial business licenses and signage permits. Operating in these countries also subjects the Company to other types of regulations, including, but not limited to, regulations related to commercialization of merchandise, financial reporting, privacy and data protection, tax compliance, customs, labor and employment practices, real estate transactions, anti-money laundering, commercial and electronic banking restrictions, credit card transactions, marketing, advertising and other general business activities. Like Mexico, department agencies, including local and state police officials, have unlimited and discretionary authority in their application of their rules and requirements.

FirstCash Website

The Company’s primary corporate website is www.firstcash.com. The Company makes available, free of charge, on its corporate website, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Important risk factors that could materially affect the Company’s business, financial condition or results of operations in future periods are described below. These factors are not intended to be an all-encompassing list of risks and uncertainties and are not the only risks and uncertainties facing the Company. Additional risks not currently known to the Company or that it currently deems to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition or results of operations in future periods.


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Risk Factor Summary

Risks Related to the Company’s Strategy, Business and Operations

The Company faces significant competition from other pawnshops, branch-based consumer lenders, banks, credit unions, online lenders, POS consumer finance companies, LTO companies; general, specialty and online retailers; governmental entities and other organizations offering similar financial services and retail products to those offered by the Company.
A decrease in demand for the Company’s products and services and the failure of the Company to adapt to such decreases could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.
The Company’s future success is largely dependent upon the ability of its management team to successfully execute its business strategy and drive organic growth.
The inability to successfully identify attractive acquisition targets, realize administrative and operational synergies and integrate completed acquisitions could adversely affect results.
The Company depends on its senior management and hiring, training and retaining an adequate number of qualified employees to run its businesses.
Security breaches, cyber attacks or fraudulent activity could result in damage to the Company’s operations or lead to reputational damage and could expose the Company to significant liabilities.
The Company’s businesses are typically subject to seasonality, which causes the Company’s revenues and operating cash flows to fluctuate.
The Company’s financial position and results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates in Latin American markets.
Changes impacting international trade and corporate tax and other related regulatory provisions may have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Company’s Regulatory, Legislative and Legal Environment

The Company’s products and services are subject to extensive regulation and supervision under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations in both the U.S. and Latin America, and all consumer finance companies that serve credit-constrained consumers, including the Company, face increasing regulatory scrutiny under the current presidential administration in the U.S. and in the current regulatory environment.
The adoption of new laws or regulations or adverse changes in, or the interpretation or enforcement of, existing laws or regulations affecting the Company’s products and services could adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.
The Company is the subject of a lawsuit initiated by the CFPB alleging (i) violations of the MLA and (ii) violations of a consent order the Company’s predecessor entered into with the CFPB.
If the bank partner loan origination model used by AFF is successfully challenged or deemed impermissible, AFF could be found to be in violation of licensing, interest rate limit, lending or brokering laws and could face penalties, fines, a determination that certain of the loans are void or voidable, litigation or regulatory enforcement.
Media reports, statements made by regulators and elected officials and the general public perception that pawnshops, LTO and retail finance products for credit-constrained consumers are predatory or abusive could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s businesses.
Current and future litigation or regulatory proceedings, both in the U.S. and Latin America, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
The sale and pawning of firearms, ammunition and certain related accessories is subject to current and potential regulation and exposes the Company to reputational and litigation risk if such firearms, ammunition and related accessories lead to deaths, injuries or are utilized in the commission of a crime.

Risks Related to the AFF Business

The AFF business is dependent on merchant partners for its transaction volume, and its growth is primarily driven by the success of its existing merchant partners, its ability to retain and grow its relationships with existing merchant partners, and its ability to attract new merchant relationships.
The AFF business derives a significant portion of its revenue from several top merchant partners. The loss of business, transaction volumes or platform support from one or more of these top merchant partners could have a material adverse effect on the AFF business.
The AFF business relies extensively on its proprietary decisioning platform and, if such platform is not effective, it could have a material impact on the AFF business and its financial condition and results of operations.
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If the AFF business is unable to collect on its leases, RISAs and bank loans, the performance of its lease and finance receivables portfolio would be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Financial and Tax Matters

The Company’s existing and future levels of indebtedness could adversely affect its financial health, its ability to obtain financing in the future, its ability to react to changes in its business and its ability to fulfill its obligations under such indebtedness.
Adverse changes in interest rates could negatively impact the Company’s operating results.
Declines in commodity market prices of gold, other precious metals and diamonds could negatively affect the Company’s profits.
The Company’s financial position and results of operations may change significantly due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates in Latin American markets.
Unexpected changes in both domestic and foreign tax laws and policies could negatively impact the Company’s operating results.

Risks Related to Economic and Market Environment

A sustained deterioration of economic conditions or an economic crisis, and government actions taken to limit the impact of such an economic crisis, could reduce demand or profitability for the Company’s products and services which would result in reduced earnings.
A severe public health or safety emergency and government stimulus programs related thereto could materially and adversely impact the Company’s business and results of operations.
Climate change, including increased frequency of extreme weather events, and related regulations could adversely affect the Company’s business and results of operations.

Strategic and Business Risks

Increased competition from other pawnshops, POS consumer finance companies, other short-term consumer lenders, other LTO companies, governmental entities and other organizations offering similar financial services and retail products offered by the Company could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

The Company’s principal competitors are other pawnshops, branch-based consumer lenders, banks, credit unions, credit card issuers, online lenders, POS consumer finance companies, LTO companies, general, specialty and online retailers, governmental entities and other organizations offering similar financial services and retail products to those offered by the Company. In addition, banks, credit card issuers, consumer finance companies and retailers continue to develop and enhance lending and retail POS payment products and services designed to compete for the credit-constrained customer, many of which have greater financial resources and brand recognition than the Company. Significant increases in the number and size of competitors for the Company’s business could result in a decrease in the number of the Company’s pawn transactions or in AFF’s transaction volumes, resulting in lower levels of revenue and earnings.

Furthermore, the Company’s retail pawn operations have many competitors, such as retailers of new and pre-owned merchandise, other pawnshops, thrift shops, online retailers of new and pre-owned merchandise, online marketplace and auction sites and social media platforms. Many consumers view these competitors as a safer, more price-competitive or convenient option for acquiring similar products as those sold by the Company. AFF also competes with many of these retailers for consumers desiring to purchase lower cost merchandise for cash or on credit.

In Mexico, the Company’s pawn stores also compete directly with government-sponsored or affiliated non-profit foundations operating pawn stores. The Mexican government could take regulatory or administrative actions that would harm the Company’s ability to compete profitably in the Mexico market.

Increased competition or aggressive marketing and pricing practices by these competitors could result in decreased revenue, margins and inventory turnover rates in the Company’s retail operations.


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A decrease in demand for the Company’s products and services and the failure of the Company to adapt to such decreases could adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

Although the Company actively manages its product and service offerings to ensure that such offerings meet the needs and preferences of its customer base (and merchant partners, in the case of the AFF business), the demand for a particular product or service may decrease due to a variety of factors, including many that the Company may not be able to control, anticipate or respond to in a timely manner, such as the availability and pricing of competing products or technology, adoption of digital wallets and currencies, changes in customers’ financial conditions as a result of changes in unemployment levels, declines in consumer spending habits related to general economic conditions, inflation, weather events, public health and safety issues, fuel prices, interest rates, government-sponsored economic stimulus programs, social welfare or benefit programs, minimum wage increase, real or perceived loss of consumer confidence or regulatory restrictions that increase or reduce customer access to particular products. The AFF business also competes in an industry that is subject to significant technological change and disruption, and AFF’s ability to meet the needs of both merchants and consumers is dependent on its ability to adequately adapt and respond to these changes.

The Company’s retail sales depend in large part on sufficient inventory levels, driven primarily by forfeited collateral on pawn loans. If demand for pawn loans decreases, inventory levels typically decline, which can negatively impact retail sales.

Should the Company fail to adapt to a significant change in its customers’ demand for, or regular access to, its products, the Company’s revenue could decrease significantly. Even if the Company makes adaptations, its customers or merchants may resist or may reject products or services whose adaptations make them less attractive or less available. In any event, the effect of any product or service change on the results of the Company’s business may not be fully ascertainable until the change has been in effect for some time.

The Company’s organic growth is subject to external factors and other circumstances over which it has limited control or that are beyond its control. These factors and circumstances could adversely affect the Company’s ability to grow.

The success of the Company’s organic expansion strategy is subject to numerous external factors, including regulatory restrictions, general economic conditions and acceptance of the Company’s products. With respect to the Company’s pawn business, organic growth is largely driven by the ability to increase the productivity of its existing stores and successfully open new stores, which new store openings are impacted by the availability of sites with favorable customer demographics, limited competition from other pawn stores, community acceptance, suitable lease terms, its ability to attract, train and retain qualified associates and management personnel, the ability to obtain required government permits and licenses and the ability to complete construction and obtain utilities in a timely manner. With respect to the AFF business, organic growth is largely driven by the ability of AFF to expand its network of merchant partners, increase utilization of its products at its merchant partners and improve its technology to support increased growth, meet the needs of its merchants and consumers and make effective approval decisions with respect to its products. Some of these factors are beyond the Company’s control. The failure to execute the Company’s organic expansion strategy would adversely affect the Company’s ability to expand its business and could materially adversely affect its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

The inability to successfully identify attractive acquisition targets, realize administrative and operational synergies and integrate completed acquisitions could adversely affect results.

The Company has historically grown in large part through strategic acquisitions, and the Company’s strategy is to continue to pursue attractive acquisition opportunities if and when they become available. The success of an acquisition is subject to numerous internal and external factors, such as competition rules, the ability to consolidate information technology and accounting functions, the management of additional sales, administrative, operations and management personnel, overall management of a larger organization, competitive market forces, and general economic and regulatory factors. It is possible that the integration process could result in unrealized administrative and operational synergies, the loss of key employees, the disruption of ongoing businesses, tax costs or inefficiencies, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect the Company’s ability to maintain relationships with customers, employees, or other third-parties or the Company’s ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions and could harm its financial performance. Furthermore, future acquisitions may be in jurisdictions in which the Company does not currently operate or in lines of business that are new to the Company, which could make the successful consummation and integration of any such acquisitions more difficult. Acquisition targets may also become increasingly scarce in future periods or harder to acquire at attractive valuations. Failure to successfully integrate an acquisition could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition, and failure to successfully identify attractive acquisition targets and complete such acquisitions on favorable terms could have an adverse effect on the Company’s growth. Additionally, any acquisition carries the risk that the Company may not realize a return on the acquisition or the Company’s investment.
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The Company’s future success is largely dependent upon the ability of its management team to successfully execute its business strategy.

The Company’s future success, including its ability to achieve its growth and profitability goals, is dependent on the ability of its management team to execute its long-term business strategy, which requires them to, among other things: (1) pursue organic growth by opening new pawn stores and expanding AFF’s network of merchant partners, (2) identify attractive acquisition opportunities, close on such acquisitions on favorable terms and successfully integrate acquired businesses, (3) encourage and improve customer traffic at its pawn stores and the utilization of AFF’s products with its existing merchant partners, (4) improve the customer experience at its pawn stores and for AFF’s merchant partners and customers, (5) enhance productivity of its pawn stores, including through investments in technology, (6) control expenses in line with current projections, (7) keep pace with technological change and improve the Company’s proprietary pawn POS and loan management system and AFF’s proprietary lease and loan management system and decisioning platform, and (8) effectively maintain its compliance programs and respond to regulatory developments and changes that impact its business. Failure of management to execute its business strategy could negatively impact the Company’s business, growth prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Further, if the Company’s growth is not effectively managed, the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be negatively affected, and the Company may not be able to continue to implement its business strategy and successfully conduct its operations.

Operational Risks

The Company depends on its senior management and may not be able to retain those employees or recruit additional qualified personnel.

The Company depends on its senior management to execute its business strategy and oversee its operations. The Company’s senior management team has significant pawn industry experience in both Latin America and the United States as well as public company experience, which the Company believes is unique in the pawn industry. Furthermore, AFF’s senior management team provides the Company with significant experience with retail POS payment solutions for credit-constrained customers. The loss of services of any member of the Company’s senior management, including AFF’s management, could adversely affect the Company’s business until a suitable replacement can be found, if at all. There may be a limited number of persons with the requisite skills to serve in these positions, and the Company cannot ensure that it would be able to identify or employ such qualified personnel on acceptable terms. Furthermore, a significant increase in the costs to retain any members of the Company’s senior management could adversely affect the Company’s business and operations.

The Company depends on hiring, training and retaining an adequate number of qualified employees to run its businesses.

The Company’s pawn business relies heavily on hourly retail employees along with supervisory employees, while AFF relies heavily on sales, information technology, data science and customer service employees. The Company must attract, train, and retain a large number of employees, while at the same time controlling labor costs. In particular, the Company’s in-store positions have historically had high turnover rates, which can lead to increased training, retention and other costs and impair the overall customer service and efficiencies at the Company’s pawn stores. There has also been an increase in labor shortages and competition for employees, especially with respect to the Company’s hourly in-store employees, including from retailers and the restaurant industries. The Company also faces meaningful competition for AFF’s salesforce, information technology, call center and data science teams. The lack of availability of adequate employees or the Company’s inability to attract and retain qualified employees, or an increase in wages and benefits to current employees, could adversely affect its business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Furthermore, federal, state or locally legislated increases in the minimum wage, as well as increases in additional labor cost components such as employee benefit costs, workers’ compensation insurance rates, compliance costs, fines and, in Mexico, additional costs associated with labor agreements, unions and profit sharing requirements, would increase the Company’s labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company’s business depends on the uninterrupted operation of the Company’s facilities, systems and business functions, including its information technology and other business systems, and reliance on other companies to provide key components of its business systems.

The Company’s business depends highly upon its ability to perform, in an efficient and uninterrupted fashion, necessary business functions such as operating, managing and securing its retail locations, technical support centers, security monitoring, treasury and accounting functions and other administrative support functions. Additionally, the Company’s storefront operations depend on the efficiency and reliability of the Company’s proprietary pawn POS and loan management system and
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AFF depends on its systems to process its transaction volume and effectively take applications, decision and service its customers. Furthermore, third parties provide a number of key components necessary to the Company’s business functions and systems. Any problems caused by these third parties could adversely affect the Company’s ability to deliver products and services to its customers and otherwise conduct its business. A shut-down of or inability to access these systems due to a power outage, a cyber-security breach or attack, a breakdown or failure of one or more of its information technology, telecommunications or other systems, or sustained or repeated disruptions of such systems could significantly impair its ability to perform such functions on a timely basis and could result in a deterioration of the Company’s ability to perform its day-to-day operations, provide customer service or perform other necessary business functions.

Security breaches, cyber attacks or fraudulent activity could result in damage to the Company’s operations or lead to reputational damage and expose the Company to significant liabilities.

An important component of the Company’s business involves collection, storage, use, disclosure, processing, transfer and other handling of a wide variety of sensitive, regulated and/or confidential information, including personally identifiable information, for various purposes in its business with customers. While the Company’s pawn business has historically acquired and maintained minimal personal information (primarily name, address, government identification numbers and date of birth). AFF obtains additional personal information, including social security numbers, dates of birth, bank account and payment card information and data from consumer reporting agencies (including credit report information) from its customers, increasing the potential risk of unauthorized access to such confidential information. The Company is under constant threat of loss due to the velocity and sophistication of security breaches and cyber attacks. These security incidents and cyber attacks may be in the form of computer hacking, acts of vandalism or theft, malware, computer viruses or other malicious codes, phishing, employee error or malfeasance, catastrophes or unforeseen events or other cyber attacks. A security breach of the Company’s computer systems, or those of the Company’s third-party service providers, including as a result of cyber attacks, could cause loss of Company assets, sensitive customer information and transaction data, interrupt or damage its operations or harm its reputation. In addition, the Company could be subject to liability if confidential customer or employee information is misappropriated from its computer systems. Any compromise of security, including security breaches perpetrated on persons with whom the Company has commercial relationships, that results in the unauthorized access to or use of personal information or the unauthorized access to or use of confidential employee, customer, supplier or Company information, could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to the Company’s reputation, and a loss of confidence of the Company’s customers, vendors and others, which could harm its business and operations. Any compromise of security could deter people from entering into transactions that involve transmitting confidential information to the Company’s systems and could harm relationships with the Company’s suppliers, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business. Actual or anticipated cyber attacks may cause the Company to incur substantial costs, including costs to prevent future attacks and investigate actual attacks, deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants. Despite the Company’s implementation of significant security measures, including the use of encryption and authentication technology to provide security and authentication to effectively secure transmission of confidential information, these systems may still be vulnerable to physical break-ins, computer viruses, programming errors, attacks by third-parties or similar disruptive problems. The Company may not have the resources or technical sophistication to anticipate or prevent rapidly evolving types of cyber attacks. Moreover, the Company may be unable to anticipate cyber attacks, react in a timely manner, or implement adequate preventative or remedial measures. Although the Company monitors its systems in order to detect security breaches or instances of unauthorized access to confidential information, there is no guarantee that its monitoring efforts will be effective. While the Company has not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches to date, the Company and AFF have been the subject of attempted hacking and cyber attacks and there can be no assurance that the Company will not suffer significant losses or reputational harm in the future.

Additionally, the regulatory environment related to information security and data collection, retention, use and privacy is increasingly rigorous, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to the Company’s business, and compliance with those requirements could result in additional costs, such as increased investment in technology or investigative expenses, the costs of compliance with privacy laws, and fines, penalties and costs incurred to prevent or remediate information security or cyber breaches. Furthermore, federal and state regulators and many federal and state laws and regulations require notice of any data security breaches that involve personal information. These mandatory disclosures are costly to implement and often lead to widespread negative publicity, which may cause consumers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of the Company’s data security measures. Any security breach suffered by the Company or its vendors, any unauthorized, accidental, or unlawful access or loss of data, or the perception that any such event has occurred, could result in a disruption to the Company’s operations, litigation, an obligation to notify regulators and affected individuals, the triggering of indemnification and other contractual obligations, regulatory investigations, government fines and penalties, reputational damage, and loss of customers and ecosystem partners, and its business could be materially and adversely affected. For additional information on cybersecurity, see “Item 1C. Cybersecurity.”
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Lastly, the Company’s cyber and other insurance policies carry retention and coverage limits, which may not be adequate to reimburse for losses caused by security breaches, and the Company may not be able to collect fully, if at all, under these insurance policies.

Because the Company maintains a significant supply of cash, loan collateral and inventories in its pawn stores and certain processing centers, the Company may be subject to employee and third-party robberies, riots, looting, burglaries and thefts. The Company may also be subject to liability as a result of crimes at its pawn stores.

The Company’s business requires it to maintain a significant supply of cash, loan collateral and inventories, including gold and other precious metals, in most of its pawn stores and certain storage and processing locations. As a result, the Company is subject to the risk of employee and third-party robberies, riots, looting, burglaries and thefts. Although the Company has implemented various programs in an effort to reduce these risks and utilizes various security measures at its facilities, there can be no assurance that robberies, riots, looting, burglaries and thefts will not occur. Robberies, riots, looting, burglaries and thefts could lead to losses and shortages and could adversely affect the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. The Company maintains a program of insurance coverage for various types of property, casualty and other risks. However, the insurance program generally has large deductibles and co-insurance requirements and may not be adequate to cover all such losses. The Company could also experience liability or adverse publicity arising from such crimes. Any such event may have a material and adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

If the Company is unable to protect its intellectual property rights, its ability to compete could be negatively impacted.

The success of the Company’s business depends to a certain extent upon the value associated with its intellectual property rights, including its proprietary, internally developed POS and loan management system that is in use in its pawn stores and its proprietary application and decisioning technology that is used by the AFF business. The Company relies on a combination of trademarks, trade dress, trade secrets, proprietary software, website domain names and other rights, including confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect its proprietary technology, processes and other intellectual property. While the Company intends to vigorously protect its trademarks and proprietary systems against infringement, it may not be successful. In addition, the laws of certain foreign countries may not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. The costs required to protect the Company’s intellectual property rights and trademarks could be substantial.

The Company’s businesses are typically subject to seasonality, which causes the Company’s revenues and operating cash flows to fluctuate and may adversely affect the Company’s ability to borrow on its unsecured credit facilities, service its debt obligations and fund its operations.

The Company’s U.S. pawn business typically experiences reduced demand in the first and second quarters as a result of its customers’ receipt of federal tax refund checks, typically in February of each year, while demand typically increases during the third and fourth quarters. The Company’s pawn business usually experiences seasonal growth of service fees in the third and fourth quarter of each year due to loan balance growth. Service fees generally decline in the first and second quarter of each year due to the typical repayment of pawn loans associated with statutory bonuses received by customers in the fourth quarter in Mexico and with tax refund proceeds typically received by customers in the first quarter in the U.S. The AFF business experiences significantly higher originations in the fourth quarter associated with holiday shopping, which shopping also generally positively impacts retail sales in the Company’s pawn stores in the fourth quarter, and reduced demand in the first and second quarters as retail expenditures are generally lower in these quarters.

This seasonality requires the Company to manage its cash flows over the course of the year. If a governmental authority were to pursue economic stimulus actions or issue additional tax refunds, tax credits or other transfer payments at other times during the year, such actions could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition during these periods. If the Company’s revenues were to fall substantially below what it would normally expect during certain periods, the Company’s annual financial results, its ability to borrow on its unsecured credit facilities, and its ability to service its debt obligations or fund its operations, including originations for the AFF business, could be adversely affected.


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The failure or inability of third parties who provide products, services or support to the Company to maintain such products, services or support could disrupt Company operations or result in a loss of revenue.

The Company’s operations and cash management are dependent upon the Company’s ability to maintain retail banking services, treasury management services and borrowing relationships with commercial banks. Actions by federal regulators in the U.S. and Latin American countries where the Company operates have caused many commercial banks, including certain banks used by the Company, to cease offering such services to the Company and other businesses in the pawn, LTO and consumer finance industries. The Company also relies significantly on outside vendors to provide services related to financial transaction processing (including credit and debit card processors), utilities, store security, armored transport, precious metal smelting, data and voice networks and other information technology products and services. The failure or inability of any of these third-party financial institutions or vendors to provide such services could limit the Company’s ability to grow its business and could increase the Company’s costs of doing business, which could adversely affect the Company’s operations if the Company is unable to timely replace them with comparable service providers at a comparable cost.

Regulators and payment processors are scrutinizing certain consumer finance companies’ access to the Automated Clearing House (“ACH”) system to disburse and collect proceeds and repayments for consumer finance products, and any interruption or limitation on the Company’s ability to access this critical system would materially adversely affect its business.

It has been reported over the past several years that actions, such as Operation Choke Point, by the U.S. Department of Justice (the “Justice Department”), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and certain state regulators appear to be intended to discourage banks and ACH payment processors from providing access to the ACH system for certain lenders that they believe are operating illegally, cutting off their access to the ACH system to either debit or credit customer accounts (or both).

In the past, this heightened regulatory scrutiny by the Justice Department, the FDIC and other regulators has caused some banks and ACH payment processors to cease doing business with consumer finance companies who are operating legally, without regard to whether those companies are complying with applicable laws, simply to avoid the risk of heightened scrutiny or even litigation. These actions have reduced the number of banks and payment processors who provide commercial banking services, credit facilities and ACH payment processing services which could conceivably make it increasingly difficult to find banking partners and payment processors in the future and/or lead to significantly increased costs for capital and these services. Furthermore, the Company also relies on credit card companies and payment processors for a significant portion of its retail sales as well as payments on its pawn loans, LTO, RISA and bank loan products. These companies may decide to cease doing business with the Company due to regulatory or reputational concerns. If the Company is unable to maintain access to needed services on favorable terms, the Company would have to materially alter, or possibly discontinue, some or all of its business if alternative processors are not available.

The Company’s risk management efforts may not be effective.

The Company could incur substantial losses and its business operations could be disrupted if the Company is unable to effectively identify, manage, monitor and mitigate financial risks, such as credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk, liquidity risk and other market-related risks, as well as regulatory and operational risks related to its business, assets and liabilities. The Company’s risk management policies, procedures and techniques may not be sufficient to identify all of the risks it is exposed to, mitigate the risks the Company has identified or identify concentrations of risk or additional risks to which the Company may become subject in the future.

Regulatory, Legislative and Legal Risks

The Company’s products and services are subject to extensive regulation and supervision under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations in both the U.S. and Latin America. If changes in regulations affecting the Company’s pawn business or the AFF business create increased restrictions, or have the effect of prohibiting pawn loans or POS payment products in the jurisdictions where the Company currently operates, such regulations could materially impair or reduce the Company’s business and limit its expansion into new markets.

The Company’s products and services are subject to extensive regulation and supervision under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations in both the U.S. and Latin America. Federal and state regulatory authorities are increasingly focused on consumer finance and retail POS payment products, such as those offered by the Company, for credit-constrained consumers. The Company faces the risk that restrictions or limitations on pawn loans and retail POS payment products resulting from the enactment, change, interpretation or enforcement of laws and regulations in the U.S. or Latin America could have a negative effect on the Company’s business activities. For example, certain states have capped interest rates on consumer loans
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at 36% and there has been legislation proposed at the Federal level and in other states to implement a comparable cap on interest rates on consumer loans. If such caps were implemented more broadly, they could have a material impact on the Company’s revenues and profitability. In addition, certain consumer advocacy groups, federal, state and local legislators and governmental agencies have also asserted that rules, laws and regulations should be tightened so as to severely limit, if not eliminate, the availability of pawn transactions, POS payment products and buy/sell agreements to consumers. Moreover, the Company expects the current presidential administration in the U.S. to devote substantial attention to consumer protection matters, including more aggressive enforcement actions, and, as a result, businesses transacting with credit-constrained consumers could be held to higher standards of monitoring, disclosure and reporting, regardless of whether new laws or regulations governing the Company’s industry are adopted. It is difficult to assess the likelihood of the enactment of any unfavorable federal or state legislation or local ordinances, and there can be no assurance that additional legislative, administrative or regulatory initiatives will not be enacted that would severely restrict, prohibit, or eliminate the Company’s ability to offer certain products and services.

In particular, with respect to the Company’s pawn business, restrictions and regulations such as licensing requirements for pawn stores and their employees, customer identification requirements, suspicious activity reporting, disclosure requirements and limits on interest rates, loan service fees, or other fees have been and continue to be proposed. Adoption of such federal, state or local regulation or legislation in the U.S. and Latin America could restrict, or even eliminate, the availability of pawn transactions and buy/sell agreements at some or all of the Company’s locations, which would adversely affect the Company’s operations and financial condition.

In addition, certain aspects of the AFF business, such as the content of its advertising and other disclosures to customers about transactions, its collection practices, the manner in which AFF contacts its customers, the decisioning process regarding whether to enter into a transaction with a potential customer, its credit reporting practices and the manner in which it processes and stores certain customer, employee and other information are subject to federal and state laws and regulatory oversight. These applicable state and federal privacy laws will require AFF to design, implement and maintain different types of privacy- and access-related compliance controls and programs simultaneously in multiple states, thereby further increasing the complexity and cost of compliance.

Moreover, certain states limit the total amount or rate of finance charge that AFF may charge a customer for the customer to achieve ownership of the leased merchandise at the end of the lease term. Additional states may elect to implement similar limits or states with existing limits may elect to further lower the total cost that AFF may charge a customer to achieve ownership of the leased merchandise at the end of the lease term, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.

The complexity of the political and regulatory environment in which the Company operates and the related cost of compliance are both increasing due to the changing political landscape, additional legal and regulatory requirements, the Company’s ongoing expansion into new markets and the fact that foreign laws occasionally are vague or conflict with domestic laws. In addition to potential damage to the Company’s reputation and brand, failure to comply with applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations, such as those outlined elsewhere in these risk factors may result in the Company being subject to claims, lawsuits, fines and adverse publicity that could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company is the subject of a lawsuit initiated by the CFPB alleging violations of the MLA and the Company’s predecessor company’s 2013 CFPB consent order.

On November 12, 2021, the CFPB initiated a civil action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas against FirstCash, Inc. and Cash America West, Inc., two of the Company’s subsidiaries, alleging violations of the MLA in connection with pawn transactions. The CFPB also alleges that these same alleged violations of the MLA constitute breaches of a 2013 CFPB consent order entered into by the Company’s predecessor that, among other things, allegedly required such predecessor company and its successors to cease and desist from further MLA violations. The CFPB is seeking an injunction, redress for affected borrowers and a civil monetary penalty. On March 28, 2022, the CFPB filed a motion to strike certain affirmative defenses of the Company. The Company responded by filing a motion for partial summary judgment. On October 24, 2022, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the lawsuit on the basis that the funding structure of the CFPB is unconstitutional. This motion to dismiss follows the recent decision in another case by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which found that the CFPB is unconstitutionally structured. The Fifth Circuit’s decisions govern the law applied in the jurisdiction in which the CFPB action is pending against the Company. In light of the CFPB's stated intent to seek Supreme Court review of that decision, the parties stipulated to a stay of the action against the Company, which the Supreme Court entered on November 4, 2022. The Supreme Court is currently reviewing the Fifth Circuit's decision, with oral arguments having been completed on October 3, 2023. The stay of the CFPB’s action against the Company will remain in effect until the
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Supreme Court issues its decision with respect to the appeal. If the Supreme Court decides in favor of the CFPB, the stay will be lifted and the Company and the CFPB will continue to litigate the civil action brought against the Company by the CFPB. While the Company intends to vigorously defend itself against the allegations in the case, it cannot predict or determine the timing or final outcome of this matter, or the effect that any adverse determinations from the lawsuit may have on the Company. An unfavorable determination in the lawsuit could result in the payment of substantial monetary damages, which could have a material effect on the Company’s business, results of operations or financial condition. The Company may also be required to modify its business practices in the event of an unfavorable determination in the lawsuit, which could result in increased operational costs and could negatively impact demand for its products and customer satisfaction. Further, the legal costs associated with the lawsuit, which may not be covered by insurance, and the amount of time required to be spent by management and the Board on this matter, even if the Company is ultimately successful, could have a material effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. Following the announcement of the CFPB’s action, the Company became the subject to a purported shareholder class action and derivative action related to the CFPB’s lawsuit. While both the securities class action and derivative action have been dismissed, there is no guarantee that the Company will not become subject to future securities litigation related to the CFPB lawsuit, including in the event of an adverse outcome in the CFPB lawsuit.

The FTC and the CFPB have regulatory, supervisory and enforcement powers over providers of consumer financial products and services in the U.S., and each could exercise its enforcement powers in ways that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business and financial results.

The FTC is charged with preventing unfair or deceptive acts or practices and false or misleading advertisements, and the CFPB is charged with preventing unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices with respect to consumer financial goods and services. To this end, the FTC and CFPB have been exercising their supervisory and investigative powers over certain non-bank providers of consumer financial products and services. In particular, both the FTC and CFPB have the authority to issue civil investigative demands and pursue administrative proceedings or litigation for actual or perceived violations of some federal consumer laws. In these proceedings, the FTC can seek consent orders, confidential memorandums of understanding, cease and desist orders (which can include orders for redisclosure, restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as affirmative or injunctive relief) and monetary penalties. The CFPB’s examination authority permits its examiners to inspect the books and records of providers of short-term, small dollar loans and to ask questions about their business practices. As a result of these examinations of non-bank providers of consumer credit, the Company could be subject to specific enforcement action, including monetary penalties, which could adversely affect the Company.

Also, where a company is alleged to have violated Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act or CFPB regulations implemented under Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and certain state regulators to bring civil actions to remedy alleged violations of law. If the CFPB or one or more state attorneys general or state regulators believe that the Company has violated any of the applicable laws or regulations or any consent orders or confidential memorandums of understanding against or with the Company, they could exercise their enforcement powers in ways that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business and financial results. Furthermore, under the current presidential administration in the U.S., the CFPB has been more aggressive in its exercise of the enforcement powers, making it more likely, as evidenced by the CFPB’s action against the Company related to alleged violations of the MLA, that future enforcement actions will be brought against consumer finance companies providing services and products to credit-constrained customers.

See “Item 1. Business—Governmental Regulation” for a further discussion of the regulatory authority of the CFPB.

The FDIC has issued examination guidance affecting AFF’s unaffiliated third-party lender and these or subsequent new rules and regulations could have a significant impact on AFF’s Bank-originated products.

The installment loans are originated by the Bank using technology and marketing services provided by AFF. The Bank is supervised and examined by both the State of Utah, which charters the Bank, and the FDIC. If the FDIC or the Utah Department of Financial Institutions considers any aspect of the Bank-originated products to be inconsistent with its guidance, the Bank may be required to alter or discontinue the product.

On July 29, 2016, the board of directors of the FDIC released examination guidance relating to third-party lending, which, if finalized, would apply to all FDIC-supervised institutions that engage in third-party lending programs, including certain bank products. The proposed guidance elaborates on previously-issued agency guidance on managing third-party risks and specifically addresses third-party lending arrangements where an FDIC-supervised institution relies on a third party to perform one or more significant aspects of the lending process. The types of relationships that would be covered by the guidance include (but are not limited to) relationships for originating loans on behalf of, through or jointly with third parties, or using platforms developed by third parties. If adopted as proposed, the guidance would result in increased supervisory attention of institutions
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that engage in significant lending activities through third parties, including at least one examination every 12 months, as well as supervisory expectations for a third-party lending risk management program and third-party lending policies that contain certain minimum requirements, such as self-imposed limits as a percentage of total capital for each third-party lending relationship and for the overall loan program, relative to origination volumes, credit exposures (including pipeline risk), growth, loan types, and acceptable credit quality. While the guidance has never formally been adopted, it is the Company’s understanding that the FDIC has relied upon it in its examination of third-party lending arrangements.

If AFF’s originating bank partner model is successfully challenged or deemed impermissible, AFF could be found to be in violation of licensing, interest rate limit, lending or brokering laws and could face penalties, fines, litigation or regulatory enforcement.

Loans originated through the Bank’s program accounted for 3% of the Company’s consolidated net revenues during 2023. AFF relies on its originating bank partner model to comply with various federal, state and other laws. If the legal structure underlying AFF’s relationship with the Bank was successfully challenged, it may be found to be in violation of state licensing requirements and state laws regulating interest rates and fees and disclosures. In the event of such a challenge or if AFF’s arrangements with the Bank were to end for any reason, AFF would need to find and rely on an alternative bank relationship, rely on existing state licenses, obtain new state licenses, pursue a bank charter, offer consumer loans and/or be subject to the interest rate limitations of certain states.

AFF could be subject to litigation, whether private or governmental, or administrative action regarding the above claims. The potential consequences of an adverse determination could include the inability to collect loans at the contracted interest rates, licensing violations, loans deemed unenforceable or void, the reduction of interest or principal, or other penalties or damages. Third-party purchasers of loans facilitated through AFF’s platform also may be subject to scrutiny or similar litigation, whether based upon the inability to rely upon the “valid when made” doctrine or because a party other than the Bank is deemed the true lender.

The adoption of new laws or regulations or adverse changes in, or the interpretation or enforcement of, existing laws or regulations affecting the Company’s products and services could adversely affect its financial condition and operating results.

Governments, including agencies at the national, state and local levels, may seek to enforce or impose new laws, regulatory restrictions, licensing requirements or taxes that affect the Company’s products or services it offers, the terms on which it may offer such products and services, and the disclosure, compliance and reporting obligations it must fulfill in connection with its business. They may also interpret or enforce existing requirements in new ways that could restrict the Company’s ability to continue its current methods of operation or to expand operations, could impose significant additional compliance costs, and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, these measures could even directly prohibit some or all of the Company’s current business activities in certain jurisdictions or render them unprofitable and/or impractical to continue.

Media reports, statements made by regulators and elected officials and the general public perception that pawnshops, LTO and retail finance products for credit-constrained consumers are predatory or abusive could materially adversely affect the Company’s businesses. In recent years, consumer advocacy groups and some media reports, in both the U.S. and Latin America, have advocated governmental action to prohibit or place severe restrictions on the Company’s products and services.

Reports and statements made by consumer advocacy groups, members of the media, regulators and elected officials often focus on the annual or monthly cost to a consumer of pawn, LTO and certain retail finance transactions, which are higher than the interest typically charged by banks to consumers with better credit histories. These reports and statements typically characterize these products as predatory or abusive and often focus on alleged instances of pawn operators purchasing or accepting stolen property as pawn collateral. If the negative characterization of the Company’s businesses becomes increasingly accepted by consumers, demand for its products could significantly decrease, which could materially affect the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, if the negative characterization of these types of transactions becomes increasingly accepted by legislators and regulators, the Company could become subject to more restrictive laws and regulations that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, any negative public perception of pawnshops generally would also likely have a material negative impact on the Company’s retail operations, including reducing the number of consumers willing to shop at the Company’s stores.


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Judicial or administrative decisions, CFPB rulemaking, amendments to the Federal Arbitration Act (the “FAA”) or new legislation could render the arbitration agreements the Company uses illegal or unenforceable.

The Company includes dispute arbitration provisions in its employment agreements and in its pawn, LTO and retail finance agreements to the extent permitted to do so under applicable law. These provisions are designed to allow the Company to resolve any employee or customer disputes through individual arbitration rather than in court. The Company’s arbitration provisions explicitly provide that all arbitrations will be conducted on an individual basis and not on a class or collective basis. Thus, the Company’s arbitration agreements, if enforced, have the effect of mitigating, but not eliminating, class and collective action liability.

However, a number of state and federal circuit courts and the National Labor Relations Board have concluded that arbitration agreements with consumer class action waivers are “unconscionable” and hence unenforceable, particularly where a small dollar amount is in controversy on an individual basis.

Therefore, it is possible that the Company’s consumer arbitration agreements will be rendered unenforceable. Additionally, Congress has considered legislation that would generally limit or prohibit mandatory dispute arbitration in certain consumer contracts, and it has adopted such prohibitions with respect to certain mortgage loans and certain consumer loans to active-duty members of the military and their dependents.

Any judicial or administrative decision, federal legislation or agency rule that would impair the Company’s ability to enter into and enforce consumer arbitration agreements with class action waivers could significantly increase the Company’s exposure to class action litigation as well as litigation in plaintiff-friendly jurisdictions. Such litigation could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Current and future litigation or regulatory proceedings, both in the U.S. and Latin America, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company or its subsidiaries has been, is, or may become involved in lawsuits, arbitration claims (including mass arbitrations); regulatory or administrative proceedings; examinations; investigations; consent orders; memorandums of understanding; audits; other actions arising in the ordinary course of business, including those related to consumer financial protection, federal or state wage and hour laws, product liability, unclaimed property, employment, personal injury; and other matters that could cause it to incur substantial expenditures and generate adverse publicity. In particular, the Company may be involved in lawsuits, arbitration claims or regulatory actions related to consumer finance and protection, employment, marketing, unclaimed property, competition matters, and other matters, including class action lawsuits brought against it for alleged violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, state wage and hour laws, state or federal advertising laws, consumer protection, lending and other laws. The consequences of defending proceedings or an adverse ruling in any current or future litigation, arbitration claims (including mass arbitrations), judicial or administrative proceeding, including consent orders or memorandums of understanding, could cause the Company to incur substantial legal fees, have to refund fees and/or interest collected, refund the principal amount of advances, pay treble or other multiples of damages, pay monetary penalties, fines, and/or modify or terminate the Company’s operations in particular states or countries. Defense or filing of any lawsuit, arbitration claims or administrative proceeding, even if successful, could require substantial time, resources, and attention of the Company’s management and could require the expenditure of significant amounts for legal fees and other related costs. Settlement of lawsuits or administrative proceedings may also result in significant payments and modifications to the Company’s operations. Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, administrative proceedings and other claims, the Company cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any such matters.

Adverse court and administrative interpretations or enforcement of the various laws and regulations under which the Company operates could require the Company to alter the products that it offers or cease doing business in the jurisdiction where the court, state or federal agency interpretation and enforcement is applicable. The Company is also subject to regulatory proceedings, and the Company could suffer losses from interpretations and enforcement of state or federal laws in those regulatory proceedings, even if it is not a party to those proceedings. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition and could impair the Company’s ability to continue current operations.


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The sale and pawning of firearms, ammunition and certain related accessories is subject to current and potential regulation, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s reputation, business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Because the Company accepts firearms as pawn collateral and buys and sells firearms, ammunition and certain related accessories in many of its U.S. pawn locations, the Company is required to comply with federal, state and local laws and regulations pertaining to the pawning, purchase, storage, transfer and sale of such products, and the Company is subject to reputational harm if a customer purchases or redeems a pawned firearm that is later involved in a shooting or other crime.

Over the past several years, the purchase, sale and ownership of firearms, ammunition and certain related accessories has been the subject of increased media scrutiny and federal, state and local regulation. If enacted, new laws and regulations could limit the types of licenses, firearms, ammunition and certain related accessories that the Company is permitted to purchase and sell and could impose new restrictions and requirements on the manner in which the Company pawns, offers, purchases and sells these products, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Furthermore, the Company may incur losses and reputational damage due to lawsuits relating to its performance of background checks on firearms purchases as mandated by state and federal law, the selling of firearms or the improper use of firearms sold by the Company, including lawsuits by individuals, municipalities, state or federal agencies or other organizations attempting to recover damages or costs from firearms retailers relating to the sale or misuse of firearms. Furthermore, if any firearms sold by the Company are used in the commitment of any crimes or mass shootings, it could result in significant adverse media attention against the Company, have a material adverse impact on the reputation of the Company and result in material litigation against the Company. Commencement of such lawsuits or any adverse media attention against the Company could have a material adverse effect on its business, reputation, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company is subject to the FCPA, anti-money laundering laws and other anti-corruption laws, and the Company’s failure to comply with these laws could result in penalties that could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company is subject to the FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and their agents or intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and/or other benefits. The Company is also subject to anti-money laundering laws in both the United States and Latin America and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act. Furthermore, AFF is required under its agreements with its originating bank partner to maintain an enterprise-wide program designed to enable it to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act. Although the Company has policies and procedures designed to ensure that it, its employees, agents, and intermediaries comply with the FCPA, anti-money laundering laws and other similar laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that such policies or procedures will work effectively all of the time or protect the Company against liability for actions taken by its employees, agents, and intermediaries with respect to its business or any businesses that it may acquire. In the event the Company believes, or has reason to believe, its employees, agents, or intermediaries have or may have violated applicable anti-corruption laws in the jurisdiction in which it operates, including the FCPA, the Company may be required to investigate or have a third party investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, which can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. The Company’s continued operation and expansion outside the U.S., especially in Latin America, could increase the risk, perceived or otherwise, of such violations in the future.

If the Company is found to have violated the FCPA, anti-money laundering laws or other similar laws, the Company may be subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could have an adverse effect on its business, results of operations, financial condition, and relationship with regulators and the Bank. Investigation of any potential or perceived violations of the FCPA, anti-money laundering laws or other similar laws by U.S. or foreign authorities could harm the Company’s reputation and could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failure to maintain certain criteria required by state and local regulatory bodies could result in fines or the loss of the Company’s licenses to conduct business.

Most states and many local jurisdictions, both in the U.S. and in Latin America, in which the Company operates require registration and licenses of stores and employees to conduct the Company’s business. These states or their respective regulatory bodies have established criteria the Company must meet in order to obtain, maintain, and renew those licenses. In addition, the AFF business is also subject to certain states’ laws which regulate and require licensing, registration, notice filing or other approval by parties that engage in certain activity regarding consumer finance transactions, including facilitating and assisting
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such transactions in certain circumstances. Furthermore, certain states and localities have also adopted laws requiring licensing, registration, notice filing, or other approval for consumer debt collection or servicing, and/or purchasing or selling consumer loans. From time to time, the Company is subject to audits in various states to ensure it is meeting the applicable requirements to maintain the applicable licenses and registrations.

Failure to meet the Company’s legal compliance requirements could result in substantial fines and penalties, store closures, the temporary or permanent suspension of operations, the revocation of existing licenses and/or the denial of new and renewal licensing requests. The Company cannot guarantee future license applications or renewals will be granted. If the Company were to lose any of its licenses to conduct its business, it could result in the temporary or permanent closure of stores and/or cessation of consumer lending activities, any of which could adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations and cash flows.

Foreign Operations Risks

The Company’s financial position and results of operations may change significantly due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates in Latin American markets.

The Company derives significant revenue, earnings and cash flow from operations in Latin America, where business operations are transacted primarily in Mexican pesos, and in Guatemalan quetzales and Colombian pesos to a lesser extent. The Company’s exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations results primarily from the translation exposure associated with the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements, as well as from transaction exposure associated with transactions and assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the respective subsidiaries’ functional currencies. While the Company’s consolidated financial statements are reported in U.S. dollars, the financial statements of the Company’s Latin American subsidiaries are prepared using their respective functional currency and translated into U.S. dollars by applying appropriate exchange rates. As a result, fluctuations in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar relative to the Latin American currencies could cause significant fluctuations in the value of the Company’s assets, liabilities, stockholders’ equity and operating results. In addition, while expenses with respect to foreign operations are generally denominated in the same currency as corresponding sales, the Company has transaction exposure to the extent expenditures are incurred in currencies other than the respective subsidiaries’ functional currencies. The costs of doing business in foreign jurisdictions also may increase as a result of adverse currency rate fluctuations. In addition, changes in currency rates could negatively affect customer demand, especially in Latin America and in U.S. stores located near the Mexican border. For a detailed discussion of the impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates, see “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

Risks and uncertainties related to the Company’s foreign operations could negatively impact the Company’s operating results.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had 1,814 pawn store locations in Latin America, including 1,721 in Mexico, 65 in Guatemala, 14 in Colombia and 14 in El Salvador, and the Company plans to open or acquire additional pawn stores in Latin America in the future. In addition, AFF owns customer service call centers operating in Jamaica and Mexico and utilizes third-party call center services located in the Dominican Republic and Mexico. Doing business in each of these countries involves increased risks related to geo-political events, political instability, corruption, economic volatility, property crime, drug cartel and gang-related violence, social and ethnic unrest including riots and looting, enforcement of property rights, governmental regulations, tax policies, banking policies or restrictions, foreign investment policies, public safety, health and security, anti-money laundering regulations, interest rate regulation and import/export regulations, among others. As in many developing markets, there are also uncertainties as to how both local law and U.S. federal law is applied, including laws related to commercial transactions and foreign investment. As a result, actions or events could occur in these foreign countries that are beyond the Company’s control, which could restrict or eliminate the Company’s ability to operate some or all of its locations in these countries or significantly reduce customer traffic, product demand and the expected profitability of such operations.

Changes impacting international trade and corporate tax and other related regulatory provisions may have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Many of the foreign countries in which the Company operates impose costs on non-domestic companies through the use of local regulations, tariffs, labor controls and other federal or state requirements or legislation. As the Company derives significant revenue, earnings and cash flow from operations in Latin America, primarily in Mexico, there are some inherent risks regarding the overall stability of the trading relationship between Mexico and the U.S. and the burdens imposed thereon by any changes to (or the adoption of new) regulations, tariffs or other federal or state legislation. Specifically, the Company has significant exposure to fluctuations and devaluations of the Mexican peso and the health of the Mexican economy, which, in each case, may be negatively impacted by changes in U.S. trade treaties, including the United States-Mexico-Canada
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Agreement and corporate tax policy. In some cases, there have been negative reactions to the enacted and/or proposed policies as expressed in the media and by politicians in Mexico, which could potentially negatively impact U.S. companies operating in Mexico. In particular, there is continued uncertainty around Mexico’s current federal administration and how the policies as applied by its administration, including conducting aggressive corporate tax and other regulatory audits, adverse government discretion, and support of increased employee minimum wages, profit sharing and benefit programs, may impact U.S. companies doing business in Mexico generally and pawn and consumer finance companies in particular. Any such changes in regulations, trade treaties, corporate tax policy, import taxes or adverse court or administrative interpretations of the foregoing could adversely and significantly affect the Mexican economy and ultimately the Mexican peso, which could adversely and significantly affect the Company’s financial position and results of the Company’s Latin America pawn operations.

Risks Related to the AFF Business

If AFF is unable to attract additional merchants and retain and grow its relationships with its existing merchant partners, its business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

AFF’s continued success is dependent on its ability to maintain and expand its merchant partner base and the volume of transactions from these merchants in order to grow revenue on its platform. Its ability to retain and grow its relationships with its merchant partners depends on the willingness of merchants to partner with AFF. The attractiveness of AFF’s platform to merchants depends upon, among other things, the size of its consumer base, its brand and reputation, the amount of merchant premium, discounts or profit share paid or received by AFF, its ability to sustain its value proposition to merchants for customer acquisition by demonstrating higher conversion at checkout, the attractiveness to merchants of AFF’s technology and data-driven platform, services and products offered by competitors, and its ability to perform under, and maintain, its merchant agreements. It is also important that AFF partner with merchants with growing sales across a diverse mix of retail channels to mitigate risk associated with changing consumer spending behavior, economic conditions and other factors that may affect a particular type of merchant or industry. Additionally, AFF’s agreements with its merchant partners are generally terminable for convenience.

If AFF is not able to retain its existing merchant partners, attract additional merchants and expand revenue and volume of transactions from existing merchants, it will not be able to continue to grow its business, and its business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

AFF derives a significant portion of its revenue from several top merchant partners. The loss of business from one or more of these top merchant partners could have a material adverse effect on the AFF business.

Historically, AFF has relied on a limited number of merchant partners for a significant portion of its total revenues and transaction volume. AFF’s top five merchant partners accounted for an aggregate of 15% of 2023 consolidated revenues, and future revenues and transaction volume of AFF may be similarly concentrated. The loss of any of these top merchant partners or groups of merchant partners for any reason, or a change of relationship with any of AFF’s key merchant partners could adversely affect the results of operations of the AFF business.

Additionally, mergers or consolidations among AFF’s top merchant partners could reduce the number of merchant partners and could adversely affect AFF’s revenues. In particular, if AFF’s merchant partners are acquired by entities that are not also AFF’s merchant partners, that do not use its solutions or that have more favorable contract terms with a competitor and choose to discontinue, reduce or change the terms of their use of AFF’s solutions, the AFF business and its operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

AFF’s transaction volume is dependent on the support of its platform by its merchant partners.

AFF depends on its merchants to drive transaction volume by supporting its platform over alternative payment options for credit-constrained customers and by prominently presenting AFF’s platform as an attractive payment option for these customers. The degree to which these merchants successfully integrate the AFF platform into their website or in their store, such as by prominently featuring the platform on such websites or in such stores, has a material impact on AFF’s transaction volume. The failure by AFF’s merchants to effectively present, integrate, and support its platform would have a material and adverse effect on AFF’s originations and, as a result, on its business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.


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Furthermore, AFF relies on these merchants to comply with all applicable laws and regulations associated with the LTO, RISA and bank loan products offered by AFF. As part of this process, merchants are generally contractually required to comply with AFF’s policies, procedures, marketing materials, and training materials. In the event that a merchant or merchant employee fails to adequately and correctly describe the terms and conditions of the lease, RISA or bank loan product, the merchant and/or AFF may be subject to consumer complaints and/or lawsuits.

AFF’s bank loan product is offered pursuant to its agreement with the Bank, and such agreement is non-exclusive, short-term in duration and subject to termination by the Bank partner upon the occurrence of certain events. If that agreement is terminated and AFF is unable to either replace the commitments of the Bank or substitute its other products for the bank loan product, its business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects may be materially affected.

AFF serves as a marketer, service provider and sub-servicer of loans originated by a Utah-chartered state bank. Under this arrangement, AFF purchases a portion of the cash flows originated by the Bank and sub-services the loans thereafter while the Bank retains ownership of the loans at all times. AFF does not originate or ultimately control the pricing or functionality of the loans. The Bank makes all key decisions regarding the marketing, underwriting, product features and pricing. AFF generates revenues through the loans and through marketing and sub-servicing fees paid by the Bank. If the Bank were to change its pricing, underwriting or marketing of the loans in a way that decreases revenues or increases losses, then the profitability of each loan could be reduced. Loans originated through the Bank’s program represent a material amount of AFF’s total origination volume. AFF’s bank loan product relies on the Bank originating the loans that are facilitated through AFF’s platform and complying with various federal, state and other laws. The loan program agreement had an initial term that expired during the third quarter of 2023, and the parties extended the agreement for a one-year term that will auto-renew in August 2024 for an additional one-year period unless either party notifies the other of its intent to terminate at least six months prior. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain early termination events, either AFF or the Bank may terminate the loan program agreement immediately upon written notice to the other party. The Bank could decide not to work with AFF for any reason, could make working with AFF cost-prohibitive or could decide to enter into an exclusive or more favorable relationship with one or more of AFF’s competitors. If the Bank were to suspend, limit or cease its operations, or if AFF’s relationship with the Bank were to otherwise terminate for any reason (including, but not limited to, its failure to comply with regulatory actions), AFF would need to implement a substantially similar arrangement with another bank, obtain additional state licenses or curtail its offering of a direct to consumer loan product through its platform. If AFF needs to enter into alternative arrangements with a different bank to replace its existing arrangements, it may not be able to negotiate a comparable alternative arrangement in a timely manner or at all. If AFF is unable to enter into an alternative arrangement with different banks to fully replace or supplement its relationship with the Bank, AFF would potentially need to cease offering its bank loan product or other direct to consumer installment loans. In the event that AFF’s relationship with the Bank were terminated and it is unable to substitute another one of its products at the merchants that utilize such bank loan products, its business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects may be materially affected.

AFF’s transaction volume is dependent on sales at its merchant partners and any decline in such sales or interruptions, inventory shortages and other factors affecting the supply chains of AFF’s merchant partners could have a material and adverse effect on AFF’s results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

AFF depends on sales at its merchant partners to drive its transaction volume. If AFF’s merchant partners experience a general decline in sales, it could negatively impact AFF’s transaction volume. Any extended supply chain interruptions, inventory shortages or other operational disruptions affecting any of its merchant partners could have a material adverse impact on AFF’s transaction volume and results of operations. AFF depends on its merchant partners’ abilities to deliver products to customers at the right time and in the right quantities. Accordingly, it is important for these merchant partners to maintain optimal levels of inventory and respond rapidly to shifting demands. The disruption to, or inefficiency in, supply chain networks may have an adverse impact on AFF’s operations in the near term, but if such interruptions were to continue, could potentially have a more material adverse impact on AFF’s results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

AFF’s business relies extensively on its proprietary decisioning platform, and if such platform is not effective it could have a material impact on AFF’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

AFF’s business is largely predicated on the effectiveness of its proprietary decisioning platform and model, and AFF relies extensively on this platform for LTO, RISA and bank loan decisioning. AFF’s platform relies heavily on AFF’s modeling and analytics as well as information provided by applicants and third-party data providers and credit reporting agencies. To the extent that applicants provide inaccurate or unverifiable information or data from third-party providers is incomplete or inaccurate, then AFF’s platform will not be able to perform effectively, which could result in wrong or sub-optimal decisions with respect to applicants. AFF’s data providers could also stop providing data, provide untimely, incorrect or incomplete data, or increase the costs for their data for a variety of reasons, including security or regulatory concerns or for competitive reasons.
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If AFF were to lose access to this external data or if such access is restricted or becomes more expensive, it could have a material effect on AFF’s business. Furthermore, the models underlying AFF’s decisioning platform may prove in practice to be less predictive than AFF expects for a variety of reasons, including as a result of errors in constructing, interpreting or using the models or the use of inaccurate assumptions (including failures to update assumptions appropriately or in a timely manner). The potential errors or inaccuracies in AFF’s decisioning platform and models may be material and affect a significant number of transactions, which could have a material and adverse effect on AFF’s business.

If AFF is unable to collect on its leases, RISAs and bank loans, the performance of its lease and loan portfolio would be adversely affected.

AFF’s ability to collect scheduled payments under its leases, RISAs and bank loans is dependent on its customers’ continuing financial stability, and, consequently, collections can be adversely affected by a number of factors, including general economic conditions, inflationary impacts and individual factors such as job loss, divorce, death, illness, personal bankruptcy and customer fraud. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and debtor relief laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on AFF’s leases, RISAs and bank loans. Federal, state or other restrictions could impair the ability of AFF or the third-party collection services utilized by AFF to collect amounts owed and due on the leases and loans facilitated through its platform. Furthermore, AFF relies on its proprietary decisioning platform to decision its LTO, RISA and bank loan products and customizes this technology to individual merchants and merchandise categories. There is no guarantee that this technology or platform will be effective in making decisions that minimize credit losses. Furthermore, the platform relies on an experienced data science team. In the event the platform is not effective or cannot be supported at the required levels, AFF could experience increased credit losses.

If AFF is unable to fully collect on its leases, RISAs and bank loans, the performance of its lease and loan portfolio will be adversely affected, which could result in additional provisions for lease and loan losses and loss of revenue, cash flow and profitability.

Accounting, Tax and Financial Risks

The Company’s existing and future levels of indebtedness could adversely affect its financial health, its ability to obtain financing in the future, its ability to react to changes in its business and its ability to fulfill its obligations under such indebtedness.

As of December 31, 2023, including the Company's senior unsecured notes and the Company’s unsecured credit facilities, the Company had outstanding principal indebtedness of $1,618.0 million and availability of $104.7 million under its unsecured credit facilities, subject to certain financial covenants. The Company's level of indebtedness could:

make it more difficult for the Company to satisfy its obligations with respect to its senior unsecured notes and its other indebtedness, resulting in possible defaults on and acceleration of such indebtedness;
require the Company to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on its indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of such cash flows to fund originations in the AFF business, working capital, acquisitions, new store openings, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit the Company’s ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, financing originations from the AFF business, acquisitions, new store openings, capital expenditures, debt service requirements and other general corporate purposes;
limit the Company’s ability to refinance indebtedness or cause the associated costs of such refinancing to increase;
restrict the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to pay dividends or otherwise transfer assets to the Company, which could limit its ability to, among other things, make required payments on its debt;
increase the Company’s vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including interest rate fluctuations (because a portion of its borrowings are at variable rates of interest); and
place the Company at a competitive disadvantage compared to other companies with proportionately less debt or comparable debt at more favorable interest rates who, as a result, may be better positioned to withstand economic downturns.

Any of the foregoing impacts of the Company’s level of indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the Company’s borrowings under its unsecured credit facilities bear interest at variable rates based on a fixed spread over the prevailing secured overnight rate (“SOFR”) and, as a result of the recent increase in interest rates, the Company’s borrowing expenses under its unsecured credit facilities increased in 2023. The Company expects borrowing expenses in 2024 to further increase from 2023 levels due to interest rates remaining higher for the entire year.
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Furthermore, the Company has, in the past, accessed the debt capital markets to refinance existing debt obligations and to obtain capital to finance growth. However, the Company’s future access to the debt capital markets could become restricted due to a variety of factors, including a deterioration of the Company’s performance or financial condition, regulatory challenges facing the Company or industry, overall industry prospects or changes in debt capital markets or the economy generally and a general bias of some large banks against lending to companies operating in the pawn and specialty finance industries. Inability to access the credit markets on acceptable terms, if at all, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and ability to fund future growth.

Additionally, the Company’s debt instruments include certain affirmative and negative covenants that require the Company to comply with certain financial covenants and impose restrictions on the Company’s financial and business operations, including limitations on liens, indebtedness, fundamental changes, asset dispositions, dividends and other similar restricted payments, transactions with affiliates, payments and modifications of certain existing debt, future negative pledges, and changes in the nature of the Company’s business. A failure to comply with the covenants contained in the Company’s debt instruments could result in an event of default or an acceleration of debt under its debt instruments. In addition, the Company’s debt instruments contain cross-default provisions that could result in its debt being declared immediately due and payable under a number of debt instruments, even if the Company defaults on only one debt instrument. In such event, it is possible that the Company would not be able to satisfy its obligations under all of such accelerated indebtedness simultaneously.

Determining the AFF business’ allowance for lease and loan losses requires many assumptions and complex analyses. If the estimates prove incorrect, the AFF business may incur net charge-offs in excess of its reserves, or may be required to increase its provision for lease and loan losses, either of which would adversely affect the Company’s results of operations.

The Company’s ability to measure and report its financial position and results of operations is influenced by the need to estimate the impact or outcome of future events on the basis of information available at the time of the issuance of the financial statements. An accounting estimate is considered critical if it requires that management make assumptions about matters that were highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimate was made. If actual results differ from the judgments and assumptions, such differences may have an adverse impact on the results of operations and cash flows. Management has processes in place to monitor these judgments and assumptions, but these processes may not ensure that the judgments and assumptions are correct.

The Company maintains an allowance for lease and loan losses at a level believed to be sufficient to cover estimated lifetime losses expected to be incurred in the lease and loan portfolio. This estimate is highly dependent upon the reasonableness of its assumptions and the predictability of the relationships that drive the results of its valuation methodologies. The Company performs a quantitative analysis to compute historical losses to estimate the allowance for future lease and loan losses. Lease and loan loss experience, first payment default histories, contractual delinquency of lease and loan receivables and management’s judgement are factors used in assessing the overall adequacy of the allowance and the resulting provision for lease and loan losses. Changes in estimates and assumptions can significantly affect the allowance and provision for lease and loan losses. It is possible that the Company will experience lease and loan losses that are different from its current estimates. If the Company’s estimates and assumptions prove incorrect and its allowance for lease and loan losses are insufficient, it may incur net charge-offs in excess of its reserves, or it could be required to increase its provision for lease and loan losses, either of which would adversely affect its results of operations.

The Company is subject to goodwill impairment risk.

At December 31, 2023, the Company had $1,727.7 million of goodwill on its consolidated balance sheet, all of which represents assets capitalized in connection with the Company’s acquisitions and business combinations. Accounting for goodwill requires significant management estimates and judgment. Management performs periodic reviews of the carrying value of goodwill to determine whether events and circumstances indicate that an impairment in value may have occurred. A variety of factors could cause the carrying value of goodwill to become impaired. A write-down of the carrying value of goodwill could result in a non-cash charge, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.

Declines in commodity market prices of gold, other precious metals and diamonds could negatively affect the Company’s profits.

The Company’s profitability could be adversely impacted by commodity market fluctuations. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 61% of the Company’s pawn loans were collateralized with jewelry, which is primarily gold, and 50% of its inventories consisted of jewelry, which is also primarily gold. The Company sells significant quantities of gold, other precious metals and diamonds acquired through collateral forfeitures or direct purchases from customers. A significant and sustained decline in gold and/or other precious metal and diamond prices could result in decreased merchandise sales and related margins,
36



decreased inventory valuations and sub-standard collateralization of outstanding pawn loans. In addition, a significant decline in market prices could result in a lower balance of pawn loans outstanding for the Company, as customers would receive lower loan amounts for individual pieces of jewelry or other gold items. For a detailed discussion of the impact of a decline in market prices on wholesale scrap jewelry sales, see “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

Unexpected changes in both domestic and foreign tax laws and policies could negatively impact the Company’s operating results.

The Company’s financial results may be negatively impacted by changes in domestic or foreign tax laws, administrative interpretations of such laws and enforcement of policies, including, but not limited to, an increase in statutory tax rates, changes in allowable expense deductions, or the imposition of new withholding requirements on repatriation of foreign earnings.

The application of indirect taxes, such as sales tax, is a complex and evolving issue, particularly with respect to the LTO industry generally and AFF’s virtual and e-commerce LTO businesses more specifically. Failure to comply with such tax provisions or a successful assertion by a jurisdiction requiring AFF to collect taxes in a location or for transactions where or for which AFF presently does not, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including those for past sales and leases, as well as penalties and interest. In addition, if the tax authorities in jurisdictions where AFF is already subject to sales tax or other indirect tax obligations were to successfully challenge AFF’s positions, AFF’s tax liability could increase substantially.

General Economic and Market Risks

General economic conditions may have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and financial results.

The Company’s business and financial results are dependent on overall economic conditions in the geographies in which it operates. In particular, the Company’s business relies heavily on consumer spending, both with respect to retail sales at its pawnshops and demand for AFF’s products to facilitate purchases at its merchant partners. A sustained or rapid downturn in economic conditions generally results in lower consumer confidence and demand for discretionary consumer goods and services, weakening demand for AFF’s products and demand for pre-owned merchandise sold in the Company’s pawnshops. While demand for pawn loans generally remains strong in periods of economic uncertainty, there is no guarantee that such demand would not decrease in future downturns. Furthermore, in periods of economic expansion and high employment, demand for pawn loans can suffer.

The current economic environment, characterized by rising inflation, higher interest rates, declines in consumer confidence and uncertainly about economic stability and a potential recession, has increased demand for pawn loans in the U.S. Conversely these conditions, coupled with tighter decisioning, adversely affected demand for AFF’s products in 2023. While retail sales at the Company’s pawnshops, due in part to the “deep value” nature of the products sold at its pawnshops, and demand for pawn loans have not been adversely affected by such economic trends in 2023, there is no guarantee that they will not be adversely affected should economic conditions deteriorate further. A sustained deterioration in the economy could reduce the demand and resale value of pre-owned merchandise and reduce the amount that the Company could effectively lend on an item of collateral. Such reductions could adversely affect pawn loan balances, pawn redemption rates, inventory balances, inventory mixes, sales volumes and gross profit margins. Furthermore, labor shortages and inflation have also increased operating costs, having a negative effect on the Company’s margins. In addition, government stimulus programs, (such as the response to the COVID-19 pandemic) and increased minimum wage laws (such as the increases that have occurred in Mexico) had an adverse impact on pawn loan demand and any future stimulus programs or minimum wage increases could have a similar adverse impact.

Furthermore, economic conditions and demand may also fluctuate by geographic region. The current geographic concentration of the Company’s pawn stores and AFF’s merchant partners creates exposure to local economies and politics, and regional downturns, including with respect to Latin American economies and politics, which tend to be more volatile than the U.S. economy. Any unforeseen events or circumstances that negatively affect these areas could materially adversely affect the Company’s revenues and profitability.

The price of the Company’s common stock may fluctuate significantly.

The market price of the Company’s common stock may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. The Company may fail to meet the expectations of its stockholders or securities analysts at some point in the future, and its stock price could decline as a result. This volatility may prevent investors from being able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid for their common stock.

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In addition, the stock markets in general have experienced volatility recently that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of the Company’s common stock. Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities.

Inclement weather, natural disasters or health epidemics can adversely impact the Company’s operating results.

The occurrence of weather events and natural disasters such as rain, cold weather, snow, wind, storms, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or health epidemics in the Company’s markets could adversely affect consumer traffic, retail sales, pawn loan and pawn redemption activities and LTO, RISA and installment loan originations and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations. In addition, the Company may incur property, casualty or other losses not covered by insurance. Losses not covered by insurance could be substantial and may increase the Company’s expenses, which could harm the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, the frequency and severity of these weather events and natural disasters may increase as a result of climate change.

Climate change could adversely affect the Company’s business and damage its reputation.

Concerns over the long-term impacts of climate change have led and will continue to lead to governmental efforts around the world to mitigate those impacts. Consumers and businesses are also changing their behavior and business preferences as a result of these concerns. New governmental regulations or guidance relating to climate change, as well as changes in consumers’ and businesses’ behaviors and business preferences, may affect whether and on what terms and conditions the Company will engage in certain activities or offer certain products or services. The governmental and supervisory focus on climate change could also result in the Company becoming subject to new or heightened regulatory requirements. Any such new or heightened requirements could result in increased regulatory, compliance or other costs. The Company’s business, reputation and ability to attract and retain employees may also be harmed if the Company’s response to climate change is perceived to be ineffective or insufficient.

Adverse real estate market fluctuations and/or the inability to renew and extend store operating leases could affect the Company’s profits.

The Company leases most of its pawn store locations. Many of the store leases, especially in Latin America, include annual rent escalations tied to the local consumer price index. A significant rise in real estate prices or real property taxes could also result in an increase in store lease costs as the Company opens new locations and renews leases for existing locations, thereby negatively impacting the Company’s results of operations. In addition, the inability of the Company to renew, extend or replace expiring store leases could have an adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations. The Company also owns the land and buildings for a significant number of its U.S. pawn locations, which could be impacted by adverse market fluctuations.

A discussion of certain other market risks is covered in “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

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Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy

The Company recognizes the importance of being able to effectively respond to and manage cybersecurity threats and incidents that may compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of its information systems, data or network resources.

As part of its overall enterprise risk management framework, the Company maintains both an Information Security Program (“ISP”) and an Incident Response Plan (“IRP”). The Company’s ISP is managed by its Chief Information Officer (the “CIO”) whose team (the Security Incident Response Team, or “SIRT”) is responsible for leading company-wide cybersecurity strategy, policy, standards, architecture, and processes. The Company’s IRP is based on applicable federal and state laws as well as cybersecurity incident response best practices. The purpose of the IRP is to define procedures for reporting and responding to cybersecurity incidents. It creates objectives for actionable procedures that can be measured, evaluated, scaled and revised as necessary for each specific incident. These objectives include maximizing the effectiveness of the Company’s operations through an established plan of action and assigning responsibilities to appropriate personnel and/or third-party contractors.

The Company has engaged a third-party managed detection and response company to monitor the security of its information systems around-the-clock, including intrusion detection, and to provide instantaneous alerting should a cybersecurity event occur. If a cybersecurity threat or cybersecurity incident is identified through the Company’s information systems, the SIRT will communicate the cybersecurity threat or cybersecurity incident and any damages to the CIO and other members of senior management of the Company. The Company will assess the materiality of the cybersecurity threat or cybersecurity incident to determine if any public disclosures are required under the SEC’s cybersecurity disclosure rule. If deemed necessary, third-party consultants, legal counsel, and assessors will be engaged to evaluate the materiality assessment.

The Company has training and awareness programs designed to educate its employees about cybersecurity risks and how to protect the Company, its customers and themselves from cyberattacks and to keep its employees informed about cybersecurity threats and how to stay safe online, including secure access practice, phishing schemes, remote work and response to suspicious activities.

The cybersecurity program of the Company interfaces with other functional areas within the Company, including but not limited to the Company’s business segments and information technology, legal, risk, human resources and internal audit departments, as well as external third-party partners, to identify and understand potential cybersecurity threats. The Company regularly assesses and updates its processes, procedures and management techniques in light of ongoing cybersecurity developments.

Recognizing the complexity and evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, the Company also engages with a range of external experts, including cybersecurity assessors, consultants, and auditors in evaluating and testing its risk management systems. These partnerships enable the Company to leverage specialized knowledge and insights, ensuring its cybersecurity strategies and processes remain at the forefront of industry best practices. The Company’s collaboration with these third parties includes regular audits, testing, threat assessments and consultation on security enhancements.

To date, risks from cybersecurity threats or incidents have not materially affected the Company. However, the sophistication of and risks from cybersecurity threats and incidents continues to increase, and the preventative actions the Company has taken and continues to take to reduce the risk of cybersecurity threats and incidents and protect its systems and information may not successfully protect against all cybersecurity threats and incidents. For more information on how cybersecurity risk could materially affect the Company’s business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition, please refer to Item 1A Risk Factors.


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Governance

Given the Company’s status as a pawn store operator and payment solutions company entrusted with the safeguarding of sensitive customer information, the Board believes that a strong enterprise cybersecurity program is vital to the Company’s overall enterprise risk management. The Board is responsible for overseeing and monitoring the material risks facing the Company. The Board has tasked the Audit Committee of the Board with leading the Company’s cyber and technology risk mitigation efforts. As part of its oversight responsibilities, the Audit Committee is responsible for discussing with management the Company’s major risk exposures, such as cybersecurity, and the steps management has taken to monitor and control those exposures, including the Company’s risk assessment and risk management policies. The Audit Committee also monitors the Company’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements and the risks associated therewith. On a regular basis, the Audit Committee reviews with senior management significant areas of risk exposure involving cybersecurity.

At the direction of the Audit Committee, the CIO and SIRT monitor internal and external cybersecurity threats and review and revise the Company’s cybersecurity defenses on an ongoing basis. The Company’s CIO, together with other members of the SIRT, bring a wealth of expertise to their respective roles, including expertise in security technologies; designing and implementing security strategies; security standards such as NIST, ISO, COBIT and ITIL; risk management and incident response. The CIO prepares reports on IT general controls and cybersecurity metrics for the Audit Committee on a regular basis, and the CIO presents those reports to the Audit Committee and addresses any questions and concerns raised by the Audit Committee. At least annually, the Audit Committee meets with the CIO in person to discuss cybersecurity in greater detail. The Audit Committee reports to the Board regarding cybersecurity matters, and the Board addresses cybersecurity issues either directly with management or through the Audit Committee.

Item 2. Properties

While the Company generally leases its pawnshop locations, the Company also purchases real estate for its pawnshop locations as opportunities arise at prices that the Company believes are attractive, whether through new store acquisitions or through purchases from its landlords at existing stores. As of December 31, 2023, the Company owned the real estate and buildings for 342 of its pawn stores and its Company’s corporate headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company leased 2,682 pawn store locations that were open or were in the process of opening. Leased facilities are generally leased for a term of three to five years with one or more options to renew. A majority of the store leases can be terminated early upon an adverse change in law which negatively affects the store’s profitability. The Company’s leases expire on dates ranging from 2024 to 2045. All store leases provide for specified periodic rental payments ranging from approximately $1,000 to $25,000 per month as of December 31, 2023. In addition, the Company leases call center space in Jamaica and Mexico to support the AFF customer service operations. For more information about the Company’s pawn store locations, see “Item 1. Business—Pawn Store Locations.”

The following table details material corporate locations leased by the Company (dollars in thousands):

DescriptionLocationSquare FootageLease Expiration DateMonthly Rental Payment
Administrative officesMonterrey, Mexico50,000 July 31, 2027$59 
Administrative officesCoppell, Texas26,000 June 30, 202947 
Administrative officesMexico City, Mexico8,000 March 31, 202421 

Most leases require the Company to maintain the property and pay the cost of insurance and property taxes. The Company believes termination of any particular lease would not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s operations. The Company believes the facilities currently owned and leased by it as pawn stores are suitable for such purpose and considers its equipment, furniture and fixtures to be in good condition.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The Company is a defendant in litigation and arbitration matters and regulatory actions encountered in the ordinary course of its business. Certain of these matters are covered to an extent by insurance. In the opinion of management, the resolution of these matters is not expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or liquidity.

See Note 13 - Commitments and Contingencies of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in Part IV, Item 15 of this report, which is incorporated to this Part I, Item 3 by reference, for a further discussion of the Company’s legal proceedings.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.


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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

General Market Information

The Company’s common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “FCFS.”

On January 31, 2024, there were approximately 209 stockholders of record of the Company’s common stock.

In January 2024, the Company’s Board declared a $0.35 per share first quarter cash dividend on common shares outstanding, or an aggregate of $15.8 million based on the December 31, 2023 share count, to be paid on February 28, 2024 to stockholders of record as of February 14, 2024. While the Company currently expects to continue the payment of quarterly cash dividends, the amount, declaration and payment of cash dividends in the future (quarterly or otherwise) will be made by the Board, from time to time, subject to the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, business requirements, compliance with legal requirements, debt covenant restrictions and other relevant factors.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table provides information about purchases made by the Company of shares of its common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023 (dollars in thousands, except per share amounts):

Total
Number
Of Shares
Purchased
Average
Price
Paid
Per Share
Total Number Of
Shares Purchased
As Part Of Publicly
Announced Plans
Approximate Dollar Value Of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Plans (1)
October 1 through October 31, 2023 — $— — $200,000 
November 1 through November 30, 2023 — — — 200,000 
December 1 through December 31, 2023 — — — 200,000 
Total— — — 

(1)In July 2023, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized an additional common stock repurchase program for up to $200.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock, of which the entire $200.0 million is currently remaining.


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Performance Graph

The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on the common stock of the Company for the period from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, with the cumulative total return on the Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) MidCap 400 Index and the Russell 2000 Index, representing broad-based equity market indexes, and the S&P MidCap 400 Financials Index and the S&P MidCap 400 Consumer Discretionary Index, representing industry-based indexes, over the same period (assuming the investment of $100 on December 31, 2018 and assuming the reinvestment of all dividends on the date paid). Note that historic performance is not necessarily indicative of future performance.

3275

Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

General
    
The Company’s primary business line is the operation of retail pawn stores, also known as “pawnshops,” which focus on serving cash- and credit-constrained consumers. The Company is the leading operator of pawn stores in the U.S. and Latin America. Pawn stores help customers meet small short-term cash needs by providing non-recourse pawn loans and buying merchandise directly from customers. Personal property, such as jewelry, electronics, tools, appliances, sporting goods and musical instruments, is pledged and held as collateral for the pawn loans over the typical 30-day term of the loan. Pawn stores also generate retail sales primarily from the merchandise acquired through collateral forfeitures and over-the-counter purchases from customers.

The Company is also a leading provider of technology-driven, retail POS payment solutions focused on serving credit-constrained consumers. The Company’s retail POS payment solutions business line consists solely of the operations of AFF, which focuses on LTO products and facilitating other retail financing payment options across a large network of traditional and e-commerce merchant partners in all 50 states in the U.S., the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. AFF’s retail partners provide consumer goods and services to their customers and use AFF’s LTO and retail finance solutions to facilitate payments on such transactions.

The Company’s two business lines are organized into three reportable segments. The U.S. pawn segment consists of pawn operations in the U.S., while the Latin America pawn segment consists of pawn operations in Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and El Salvador. The retail POS payment solutions segment consists of the operations of AFF in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Financial information regarding the Company’s revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area is provided in Note 17 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Critical Accounting Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, related revenue and expenses, and disclosure of gain and loss contingencies at the date of the financial statements. Such estimates, assumptions and judgments are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, which may cause actual results to differ materially from the Company’s estimates.

The critical accounting policies and estimates that could have a significant impact on the Company’s results of operations are described in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company believes the following critical accounting policies describe the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its consolidated financial statements.

Pawn loans and revenue recognition — Pawn loans are secured by the customer’s pledge of tangible personal property, which the Company holds during the term of the loan. If a pawn loan defaults, the Company relies on the sale of the pawned property to recover the principal amount of an unpaid pawn loan, plus a yield on the investment, as the Company’s pawn loans are non-recourse against the customer. The Company accrues pawn loan fee revenue on a constant-yield basis over the life of the pawn loan for all pawns for which the Company deems collection to be probable based on historical pawn redemption statistics, which is included in accounts receivable, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. If the pawn loan is not repaid prior to the expiration of the pawn loan term, including any extension or grace period, if applicable, the principal amount loaned becomes the inventory carrying value of the forfeited collateral, which is typically recovered through sales of the forfeited items at prices well above the carrying value. The Company has determined no allowance related to credit losses on pawn loans is required, as the fair value of the pledged collateral is significantly in excess of the pawn loan amount.

Pawn inventories and revenue recognition — Pawn inventories represent merchandise acquired from forfeited pawn loans and merchandise purchased directly from the general public. The Company also retails limited quantities of new or refurbished merchandise obtained directly from wholesalers and manufacturers. Pawn inventories from forfeited pawn loans are recorded at the amount of the pawn principal on the unredeemed goods, exclusive of accrued interest. Pawn inventories purchased directly from customers, wholesalers and manufacturers are recorded at cost. The cost of pawn inventories is determined on the specific identification method. Pawn inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and, accordingly, valuation allowances are established if pawn inventory carrying values are in excess of estimated selling prices, net of direct costs of disposal. Management has evaluated pawn inventories and determined that a valuation allowance is not necessary.

The Company’s merchandise sales are primarily retail sales to the general public in its pawn stores. The Company records sales revenue at the time of the sale. The Company presents merchandise sales net of any sales or value-added taxes collected. Some jewelry inventory is melted and processed at third-party facilities, and the precious metal and diamond content is sold at either
44



prevailing market commodity prices or a previously agreed upon price with a commodity buyer. The Company records revenue from these wholesale scrap jewelry transactions when a price has been agreed upon and the Company ships the commodity to the buyer.

Leased merchandise and revenue recognition — The Company provides merchandise, consisting primarily of furniture and mattresses, appliances, jewelry, electronics and automotive products, to customers of its merchant partners for lease under certain terms agreed to by the customer. The customer has the right to acquire the title either through an early buyout option or through payment of all required lease payments. The Company maintains ownership of the leased merchandise until all payment obligations are satisfied under the lease agreement. The customer has the right to cancel the lease at any time by returning the merchandise. Leased merchandise contracts can typically be renewed for weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly, and monthly renewal periods and are generally renewed for between six and 24 months. Leased merchandise is stated at depreciated cost. The Company depreciates leased merchandise over the life of the lease and assumes no salvage value. Depreciation is accelerated upon an early buyout. All of the Company’s leased merchandise represents on-lease merchandise and all leases are operating leases.

Lease income is recognized over the lease term and is recorded net of any sales taxes collected. Charges for late fees and insufficient fund fees are recognized as income when collected. Initial direct costs related to the Companyʼs lease agreements are added to the basis of the leased property and recognized over the lease term in proportion to the recognition of lease income. The Company typically charges the customer a non-refundable processing fee at lease inception and may also receive a discount from or pay a premium to certain merchant partners for leases originated at their locations, which are deferred and amortized using the straight-line method as adjustments to lease income over the contractual life of the related leased merchandise. Unamortized fees, discounts and premiums are recognized in full upon early buyout or charge-off.

The Company accrues lease income earned but not yet collected as accrued rent receivable, which is included in accounts receivable, net in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Alternatively, lease payments received in excess of the amount earned are recognized as deferred revenue, which is included in customer deposits and prepayments in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Customer payments are first applied to applicable sales tax and scheduled lease payments, then applied to any uncollected fees, such as late fees and insufficient fund fees. The Company collects sales taxes on behalf of the customer and remits all applicable sales taxes collected to the respective jurisdiction.

Provision for lease losses — The Company records a provision for lease losses on an allowance method, which estimates the leased merchandise losses incurred but not yet identified by management as of the end of the accounting period. The allowance for lease losses is based primarily upon historical loss experience, with consideration given to recent and forecasted business trends including, but not limited to, loss trends, delinquency levels, economic conditions, underwriting and collection practices.

The Company charges off leased merchandise when a lease is 90 days or more contractually past due. If an account is deemed to be uncollectible prior to this date, the Company will charge off the leased merchandise at the point in time it is deemed uncollectible.

Finance receivables and revenue recognition — The Company purchases and services retail finance receivables, the term of which typically range from six to 24 months, directly from its merchant partners or from its bank partner. The Company has a partnership with a Utah state-chartered bank that requires the Company to purchase the rights to the cash flows associated with finance receivables marketed to retail consumers on the bank’s behalf. The bank establishes the underwriting criteria for the finance receivables originated by the bank.

Interest income is recognized using the interest method over the life of the finance receivable for all loans for which the Company deems collection to be probable based on historical loan redemption statistics and stops accruing interest upon charge-off. Charges for late fees and insufficient fund fees are recognized as income when collected. The Company receives an origination fee on newly purchased bank loans and may receive a discount from or pay a premium to certain merchant partners for finance receivables purchased from them, which are deferred and amortized using the interest method as adjustments to yield over the contractual life of the related finance receivable. Unamortized origination fees, discounts and premiums are recognized in full upon early payoff or charge-off.

The Company offers customers an early payoff discount on most of its finance receivables, whereby the customer has between 90 and 101 days to pay the full principal balance without incurring any interest charge. If the borrower does not pay the full principal balance prior to the expiration of the early payoff discount period, interest charges are applied retroactively to the inception date of the loan. The Company accrues interest income during the early payoff discount period but records a reserve for loans expected to pay the full principal balance prior to the expiration of the early payoff discount period based on historical payment patterns.
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Provision for loan losses — Expected lifetime losses on finance receivables are recognized upon loan purchase, which requires the Company to make its best estimate of probable lifetime losses at the time of purchase. The Company segments its finance receivable portfolio into pools of receivables with similar risk characteristics, which include loan product and monthly origination vintage, and evaluates each pool for impairment.

The Company calculates the allowance for loan losses based on historical loss information and incorporates observable and forecasted economic conditions over a reasonable and supportable forecast period covering the full contractual life of finance receivables. Incorporating observable and forecasted economic conditions could have a material impact on the measurement of the allowance to the extent that forecasted economic conditions change significantly. The Company may also consider other qualitative factors to address recent and forecasted business trends in estimating the allowance, as necessary, including, but not limited to, loss trends, delinquency levels, economic conditions, underwriting and collection practices. The allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level considered appropriate to cover expected lifetime losses on the finance receivable portfolio, and the appropriateness of the allowance is evaluated at each period end.

The Company charges off finance receivables when a receivable is 90 days or more contractually past due. If an account is deemed to be uncollectible prior to this date, the Company will charge off the finance receivable at the point in time it is deemed uncollectible.

Business combinations — Business combination accounting requires the Company to determine the fair value of all assets acquired, including identifiable intangible assets, liabilities assumed and contingent consideration issued in a business combination. The total consideration of the acquisition is allocated to the assets and liabilities in amounts equal to the estimated fair value of each asset and liability as of the acquisition date, and any remaining acquisition consideration is classified as goodwill. This allocation process requires extensive use of estimates and assumptions. When appropriate, the Company utilizes independent valuation experts to advise and assist in determining the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with a business acquisition, in determining appropriate amortization methods and periods for identified intangible assets and in determining the fair value of contingent consideration, which is reviewed at each subsequent reporting period with changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration recognized in the consolidated statement of income. See Note 3 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets — Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired in each business combination. The Company performs its goodwill impairment assessment annually as of October 1, and between annual assessments if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The Company’s reporting units, which are tested for impairment, are U.S. pawn, Latin America pawn and retail POS payment solutions. The Company assesses goodwill for impairment at a reporting unit level by first assessing a range of qualitative factors, including, but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry conditions, the competitive environment, changes in the market for the Company’s products and services, regulatory and political developments, entity specific factors, such as strategy and changes in key personnel, and overall financial performance. If, after completing this assessment, it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the Company proceeds to the quantitative impairment testing methodology. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The Company’s other material, indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of certain trade names and pawn licenses. The Company performs its indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment assessment annually as of December 31, and between annual assessments if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset below its carrying amount. See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.


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Results of Operations

2023 Consolidated Operating Results Highlights

The following table sets forth revenue, net income, diluted earnings per share, adjusted net income, adjusted diluted earnings per share, EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 (in thousands, except per share amounts):

Year Ended December 31,
As Reported (GAAP)Adjusted (Non-GAAP)
2023202220232022
Revenue$3,151,796 $2,728,942 $3,151,796 $2,771,599 
Net income$219,301 $253,495 $276,874 $245,737 
Diluted earnings per share$4.80 $5.36 $6.06 $5.19 
EBITDA (non-GAAP measure)$493,784 $496,860 $511,732 $437,344 
Weighted-average diluted shares45,693 47,330 45,693 47,330 

See “Non-GAAP Financial Information—Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share and —Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA) and Adjusted EBITDA” below.

The following charts present net income, adjusted net income, diluted earnings per share, adjusted diluted earnings per share, EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA, revenue and adjusted revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 (in millions, except per share amounts):
915916917549755914432
* Non-GAAP financial measures. See “Non-GAAP Financial Information” for additional discussion of non-GAAP financial measures.
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Operating Results for the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic and government responses thereto had an initial adverse and material impact on pawn loan demand in 2020, which negatively impacted pawn receivables, inventories and revenues. This initial adverse impact in pawn loan demand was offset in large part by a positive impact in merchandise sales, especially among stay-at-home products, which were enhanced by federal stimulus payments directly to consumers. Throughout 2021 and 2022, as the contributory impacts of the pandemic normalized, pawn loan demand steadily recovered and pawn receivables, inventories and revenues are now ahead of pre-pandemic levels. Inflationary pressures on the Company’s customer base helped drive further demand for consumer credit, which contributed to the recovery in pawn loan demand.

The following tables and related discussion set forth key operating and financial data for the Company’s operations by reporting segment as of and for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. For similar operating and financial data and discussion of the Company’s 2022 results compared to its 2021 results, refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Part II of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, which was filed with the SEC on February 6, 2023.

Stores included in the same-store calculations presented in the U.S. pawn segment and Latin America pawn segment sections below are those stores that were opened or acquired prior to the beginning of the prior-year comparative period and remained open through the end of the reporting period. Also included are stores that were relocated during the applicable period within a specified distance and are serving the same market, where there is not a significant change in store size, and where there is not a significant overlap or gap in timing between the opening of the new store and the closing of the existing store.


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U.S. Pawn Segment

The following table presents segment pre-tax operating income and other operating metrics of the U.S. pawn segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 (dollars in thousands). Operating expenses include salary and benefit expense of pawn store-level employees, occupancy costs, bank charges, security, insurance, utilities, supplies and other costs incurred by the pawn stores.

Year Ended
December 31,
20232022Increase
U.S. Pawn Segment
Revenue:
Retail merchandise sales$854,190 $818,548 %
Pawn loan fees435,762 373,416 17 %
Wholesale scrap jewelry sales78,571 63,004 25 %
Total revenue1,368,523 1,254,968 %
Cost of revenue:  
Cost of retail merchandise sold490,544 478,718 %
Cost of wholesale scrap jewelry sold64,545 54,893 18 %
Total cost of revenue555,089 533,611 %
Net revenue813,434 721,357 13 %
Segment expenses:  
Operating expenses451,543 407,039 11 %
Depreciation and amortization25,585 23,205 10 %
Total segment expenses477,128 430,244 11 %
Segment pre-tax operating income$336,306 $291,113 16 %
Operating metrics:
Retail merchandise sales margin43 %42 %
Net revenue margin59 %57 %
Segment pre-tax operating margin25 %23 %


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The following table details earning assets, which consist of pawn loans and inventories as well as other earning asset metrics of the U.S. pawn segment, as of December 31, 2023 as compared to December 31, 2022 (dollars in thousands, except as otherwise noted):

As of December 31,
 20232022Increase
U.S. Pawn Segment   
Earning assets:
Pawn loans$344,152 $282,089 22 %
Inventories221,843 202,594 10 %
$565,995 $484,683 17 %
Average outstanding pawn loan amount (in ones)$258 $247 %
Composition of pawn collateral:
General merchandise30 %30 %
Jewelry70 %70 %
 100 %100 %
Composition of inventories:
General merchandise43 %41 %
Jewelry57 %59 %
100 %100 %
Percentage of inventory aged greater than one year1 %%
Inventory turnover (trailing twelve months cost of merchandise sales divided by average inventories)2.8 times2.7 times

Retail Merchandise Sales Operations

U.S. retail merchandise sales increased 4% to $854.2 million during 2023 compared to $818.5 million for 2022. Same-store retail sales decreased 2% during 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in total retail sales was primarily due to sales contributions from acquired stores, whereas the decrease in same-store retail sales was primarily due to lower than normal inventory levels in these locations during much of 2023 compared to 2022. During 2023, the gross profit margin on retail merchandise sales in the U.S. was 43% compared to a margin of 42% during 2022, reflecting continued demand for value-priced, pre-owned merchandise and low levels of aged inventory.

U.S. inventories increased 10% from $202.6 million at December 31, 2022 to $221.8 million at December 31, 2023. The increase was primarily due to inventories at acquired stores and a modest increase in same-store inventories. Inventories aged greater than one year in the U.S. were 1% at both December 31, 2023 and 2022.

Pawn Lending Operations

U.S. pawn loan receivables as of December 31, 2023 increased 22% in total and 14% on a same-store basis compared to December 31, 2022. The increase in total pawn receivables was due to incremental pawn loans from acquired stores and an increase in same-store pawn receivables, which the Company believes was primarily due to continued inflationary pressures driving additional demand for pawn loans and tightened underwriting for other competing forms of consumer credit.


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U.S. pawn loan fees increased 17% to $435.8 million during 2023 compared to $373.4 million for 2022. Same-store pawn loan fees increased 11% during 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in total and same-store pawn loan fees was primarily due to higher average pawn receivables and increased portfolio yield, driven by slightly improved customer redemption rates.

Segment Expenses

U.S. store operating expenses increased 11% to $451.5 million during 2023 compared to $407.0 million during 2022. The increase in operating expenses was primarily due to acquired stores and a 5% increase in same-store operating expenses primarily due to inflationary increases in wages and certain other operating costs and increased store-level incentive compensation, driven by increased net revenues and segment profit during 2023 compared to 2022.

Segment Pre-Tax Operating Income

The U.S. segment pre-tax operating income for 2023 was $336.3 million, which generated a pre-tax segment operating margin of 25% compared to $291.1 million and 23% in the prior year, respectively. The increase in the segment pre-tax operating income and margin reflected an improved net revenue margin partially offset by the increase in segment expenses.



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Latin America Pawn Segment

Latin America pawn segment pre-tax operating income for 2023 compared to 2022 benefited from an 11% favorable change in the average value of the Mexican peso compared to the U.S. dollar. The translated value of Latin American earning assets as of December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022 also benefited from a 13% favorable change in the end-of-period Mexican peso compared to the U.S. dollar. Constant currency results are non-GAAP financial measures, which exclude the effects of foreign currency translation and are calculated by translating current-year results at prior-year average exchange rates. See the “Constant Currency Results” section in “Non-GAAP Financial Information” below for additional discussion of constant currency operating results.

The following table presents segment pre-tax operating income and other operating metrics of the Latin America pawn segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 (dollars in thousands). Operating expenses include salary and benefit expense of pawn store-level employees, occupancy costs, bank charges, security, insurance, utilities, supplies and other costs incurred by the pawn stores.

Constant Currency Basis
Year Ended
Year EndedDecember 31,Increase /
December 31,2023(Decrease)
 20232022Increase(Non-GAAP)(Non-GAAP)
Latin America Pawn Segment
Revenue:
Retail merchandise sales$533,612 $447,523 19 %$474,744 %
Pawn loan fees222,774 187,974 19 %198,013 %
Wholesale scrap jewelry sales46,917 39,969 17 %46,917 17 %
Total revenue803,303 675,466 19 %719,674 %
Cost of revenue:   
Cost of retail merchandise sold345,309 288,449 20 %307,442 %
Cost of wholesale scrap jewelry sold37,276 33,411 12 %33,006 (1)%
Total cost of revenue382,585 321,860 19 %340,448 %
Net revenue420,718 353,606 19 %379,226 %
Segment expenses:   
Operating expenses243,146 193,254 26 %217,507 13 %
Depreciation and amortization21,350 18,325 17 %19,199 %
Total segment expenses264,496 211,579 25 %236,706 12 %
Segment pre-tax operating income
$156,222 $142,027 10 %$142,520 — %
Operating metrics:
Retail merchandise sales margin35 %36 %35 %
Net revenue margin52 %52 %53 %
Segment pre-tax operating margin19 %21 %20 %


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The following table details earning assets, which consist of pawn loans and inventories as well as other earning asset metrics of the Latin America pawn segment, as of December 31, 2023 as compared to December 31, 2022 (dollars in thousands, except as otherwise noted):

Constant Currency Basis
As of
December 31,Increase /
As of December 31,2023(Decrease)
 20232022Increase(Non-GAAP)(Non-GAAP)
Latin America Pawn Segment    
Earning assets:
Pawn loans$127,694 $108,528 18 %$112,110 %
Inventories90,246 85,745 %79,218 (8)%
$217,940 $194,273 12 %$191,328 (2)%
Average outstanding pawn loan amount (in ones)$95 $83 14 %$84 %
Composition of pawn collateral:
General merchandise63 %67 %
Jewelry37 %33 %
100 %100 %
Composition of inventories:
General merchandise67 %71 %
Jewelry33 %29 %
100 %100 %
Percentage of inventory aged greater than one year1 %%
Inventory turnover (trailing twelve months cost of merchandise sales divided by average inventories)4.4 times4.2 times

Retail Merchandise Sales Operations

Latin America retail merchandise sales increased 19% (6% on a constant currency basis) to $533.6 million during 2023 compared to $447.5 million for 2022. Same-store retail sales increased 18% (5% on a constant currency basis) during 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in total and same-store retail sales was primarily due to greater demand for value-priced consumer goods, with such demand believed to be driven in part by the impact of increases in government-mandated minimum wage and benefit programs in Mexico benefiting many cash-constrained consumers. The gross profit margin on retail merchandise sales was 35% during 2023 compared to 36% during 2022.

Latin America inventories increased 5% (8% decrease on a constant currency basis) from $85.7 million at December 31, 2022 to $90.2 million at December 31, 2023. The decrease in constant currency inventories was primarily due to the greater demand for value-priced consumer goods mentioned above and slightly lower pawn loan forfeiture rates in 2023 compared to 2022. Inventories aged greater than one year in Latin America were 1% at both December 31, 2023 and 2022.


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Pawn Lending Operations

Latin America pawn loan receivables increased 18% (3% on a constant currency basis) as of December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022. On a same-store basis, pawn loan receivables increased 17% (3% on a constant currency basis) as of December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022. The smaller than expected increase in constant currency total and same-store pawn receivables is believed to be driven in part by the impact of increases in government-mandated minimum wage and benefit programs in Mexico that benefited many cash-constrained consumers.

Latin America pawn loan fees increased 19% (5% on a constant currency basis), to $222.8 million during 2023 compared to $188.0 million for 2022. Same-store pawn loan fees increased 18% (5% on a constant currency basis) during 2023 compared to 2022. The increase in total and same-store constant currency pawn loan fees was primarily due to increased pawn receivable balances.

Segment Expenses

Store operating expenses increased 26% (13% on a constant currency basis) to $243.1 million during 2023 compared to $193.3 million during 2022. Same-store operating expenses increased 24% (11% on a constant currency basis) compared to the prior year. The increase in total and same-store operating expenses was primarily driven by general inflationary impacts and increases in the federally mandated minimum wage and increased costs of required employee benefit programs.

Segment Pre-Tax Operating Income

The segment pre-tax operating income for 2023 was $156.2 million, which generated a pre-tax segment operating margin of 19% compared to $142.0 million and 21% in the prior year, respectively. The increase in the segment pre-tax operating income reflected an increase in net revenue, partially offset by the increase in segment expenses.



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Retail POS Payment Solutions Segment

Retail POS Payment Solutions Operating Results

The following table presents segment pre-tax operating income of the retail POS payment solutions segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 (dollars in thousands). Operating expenses include salary and benefit expenses of certain operations-focused departments, merchant partner incentives, bank and other payment processing charges, credit reporting costs, information technology costs, advertising costs and other operational costs incurred by AFF.

Adjusted (1)
Year Ended
Year Ended
December 31,
December 31,
2022Increase
20232022Increase(Non-GAAP)(Non-GAAP)
Retail POS Payment Solutions Segment
Revenue:
Leased merchandise income$752,682 $622,163 21 %$622,163 21 %
Interest and fees on finance receivables233,818 181,280 29 %223,937 %
Total revenue986,500 803,443 23 %846,100 17 %